Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Risk mangement Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Risk mangement - Personal Statement Example I have decided to take the risk management course to better my quantitative and technical skills in finance. I wish to re-enter the financial field with the current harsh economic conditions only after solidifying my little experience in your institution. After obtaining an in-depth understanding of the computational, statistical tools and the mathematical skills that are essential when dealing with bank or any organizational data, the economic waters that have become treacherous to navigate without the necessary risk management skills will be an easier sailing place. I hope that I will evolve into an individual who has understood the industry well so that I can deliver well to the clients at the same time employ the management audacity through quantitative portfolio to the advantage of the investor. I believe I can excel in this course taking into consideration my enthusiasm and commitment to finance related institutions, I have worked in the banking industry for nine years. The vast experience I have gained so far gives me an opportunity to develop extensively the gained knowledge and skills in the financial operations. The course content appeals to me strongly and being a student at the University will definitely provide me with the essential knowledge that I need in advancing my

Monday, October 28, 2019

Writing to argue Essay Example for Free

Writing to argue Essay Writing to argue is a very popular choice of writing for both exams and coursework. By carefully following the advice below you should be able to improve your grade ARGUMENT OR PERSUASION? Argument and persuasion are very similar styles of writing; indeed many treat them both as writing that seeks to influence. There are some differences, however. An argument is an issue about which reasonable people disagree. An effective argument, therefore, will put forward a well-reasoned point of view, one that recognises but aims to counter other equally valid views; persuasion tends to be far more single-minded in its aim to change minds. A good argument is based, therefore, mainly on reason (even if this is passionately even emotionally conveyed); persuasion tends to be a more one-sided, personal and emotional conviction that only one way is the right way. ARGUMENT AND THE ANCIENT ART OF RHETORIC The art of argument and persuasion has been studied for thousands of years. The ancient Greeks called it rhetoric and its two most famous teachers were the two Greek philosophers, Aristotle and Cicero. CLASSICAL RHETORIC The Greeks believed that the ideal way to persuade someone was through the use of reason alone (which they called logos); however, they recognised that human weakness meant that two further techniques were also useful: the appeal to character (called ethos) and the appeal to emotion (called pathos). LOGOS THE APPEAL TO REASON Most people believe themselves to be reasonable so appealing to a persons sense of reason is the most effective means of convincing them to change their way of thinking. ETHOS THE APPEAL TO CHARACTER We all share common ideas of what is right and wrong; demonstrating your own or appealing your opponents sense of what is right and fair is highly persuasive. PATHOS THE APPEAL TO EMOTION It is said that when emotion comes in through the door, reason departs via the window so use emotional pleas with care; but, persuasion does often succeed by the careful and considered use of emotion especially showing how passionate you feel for your point of v iew. What makes an effective argument? * Arguments should seek to answer the question Why? in full for one side of the argument (some exam questions might ask for both sides to be made clear). * The tone of voice with which you choose to address your reader (e.g. friendly, serious, assertive, etc.) and the register of language you adopt (the complexity of vocabulary and degree of formality or informality, for example) should be appropriate to the task and the audience. 1. Consider your audience * Immediately capture their attention with a lively and interesting opening sentence. * Be tactful and show you respect their point of view (but never agree that it is better than your own!) * Sound authentic, knowledgeable, trustworthy and convincing. * Acknowledge that other views exist but find ways to counter these with your own more reasonable points. * Logic and reason win arguments but be passionate about your views * Interest your audience by using a suitable anecdote to illustrate one of your major points. * Never sound superior, condescending or impolite. Any suggestion that other viewpoints are silly or foolish is the equivalent of calling your reader silly and foolish. The result? Lost argument. Lost marks. Try switching roles how could you be convinced? 2. Know the conventions of the form of your writing * You may be asked to write in the form of an essay, a formal or informal letter, an newspaper or magazine article, a school newsletter, a speech, and so on. Make sure you know the conventions that apply to each of these. 3. Know the most effective argument methods * Remember that because the other sides view is reasonably held, you will only win them over through impassioned reason and logic. * The key to a successful argument is to plan well, making sure you release your various points in a progressively convincing order. Try to show that you have planned or, as the examiners put it: consciously shaped your response. This gains many extra marks. * You need to show that your opponent can trust you so make up a solid and believable reason why you are in a good position to argue over this issue. * An effective way of convincing someone that you are reasonable is to argue from a position of what is called common ground. This is an outcome that is common to both of you an end-point you both desire. Having acknowledged this, you then proceed by showing how your way to this goal is the best way. * A strong way to show how reasonable you are is to acknowledge that other views are well thought out just not quite as well thought out as your own. This is a skilful and subtle approach. * Using a humorous or vivid but entirely reasonable and realistic anecdote to illustrate a point can be an excellent way of countering the opposite point of view, e.g. Let me tell you about a friend of mine. He . * Use rhetorical devices such as rhetorical questions, list of three, repetition, etc. to increase the persuasive power of your argument. The most successful arguments are INTERESTING, ORIGINAL AND APPEALING ORGANISED, PROGRESSIVE AND CONVINCING EASY TO FOLLOW THOUGHTFUL AND CONSIDERATE SUBTLE and SOPHISTICATED IN MORE DETAIL 1. Plan 2. Write 3. Check 1. PLAN * Planning: Put simply, you will probably lose marks if you fail to plan before you write. Each year the examining boards report that this is the case. The mark schedules state that the students argument needs to be consciously shaped and this means well-structured; a plan is essential for this. You have one hour for this question so time is on your side for once. * Decide on what would be a suitable style for your kind of reader. * Brainstorm to create a list of points in favour of your idea. Choose five of the most convincing. Check that each point is truly separate and not a part of a larger, more general point; if it is, use the larger point. Make sure each point is truly convincing switch roles: would these persuade you? * Organise these five points into a progressive and persuasive order. * Create an equivalent list of opposing points that you may need to counter. * Work out a few ways to add interest and authority to your writing: rhetorical questions, an effective anecdote a piece of research, an expert opinion. * Aim to use REASON rather than EMOTION but do show your beliefs are passionately held, also you could use humour or emotion in one of the anecdotes you use. And always remember that if you call the oppositions view silly or foolish, you are effectively calling your reader silly and foolish too. Result: lost argument; lost marks. 2. WRITE OPENING PARAGRAPH * Open strongly and in an original way to capture your readers attention. * State your own point of view but dont be too strident in your tone. * If relevant and useful, give the history and background of the argument. * Find some common ground between you and your reader to generate trust and goodwill in you as a person and as a thinker. Selling yourself will help your reader decide to buy your ideas. BODY (CENTRAL) PARAGRAPHS * Open each paragraph with a topic sentence that introduces the points created from your planning above. * Explain, develop and explore fully each point you make in a logical, sensitive and clear way. * Try to link each paragraph to the next by using a subtle transition or hook sentence at the end of every body paragraph. * Acknowledge opposing views but sensitively refute them and show how your view is best. * Add power to your argument by using rhetorical devices. HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF RHETORICAL DEVICES Rhetorical questions, similes, metaphors, emotive language (use with care!), irony (but never sarcasm!), lists of three, repetition, hyperbole (exaggeration for effect), humour, anecdotes, and so on. * Add fluency to your argument by using discursive markers. HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF DISCURSIVE MARKERS However; although, if so, and so, but, clearly, on the other hand, therefore, supposing that, furthermore, looked at another way, in contrast, on the contrary, etc. * Add authenticity to your argument by sounding sincere, using anecdotes (true accounts) and so on. * Add authority to your argument by writing confidently and using effective support, e.g. expert opinion, statistics, and so on make this up in the exam, but keep it reasonable. CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH * Round up your argument by restating your case and summarising your main points. End as you began in a powerful, interesting and memorable way. 3. CHECK In this part of the exam, you gain marks for writing in an accurate, clear and fluent way. Each year the examiners report mentions that many students failed to achieve a higher grade because they failed to check and correct their work. Always give yourself time to check your writing thoroughly before handing in the exam paper. Read each sentence after you have written it Write using a variety of sentence types and styles but remember especially that shorter sentences are often more interesting because they are crisper and clearer. An occasional ultra-short sentence can add real impact to writing. Never fail to re-read your sentences after writing them to check that they are complete in their sense, accurate in their grammar and spelling and follow on logically and smoothly from the last. Check every paragraph. A paragraph is a written discussion that covers a single topic one topic among the many that are needed to cover the subject matter of the whole piece of writing. One of the sentences in the paragraph, and quite often the first one, is called the topic sentence. This is the sentence that introduces, or tells in a nut shell, what the paragraph is going to be about. The remaining sentences do no more than expand and explore the ideas raised by the topic sentence in more depth. No points that are unrelated to the main topic should be covered in the same paragraph. Each paragraph should flow smoothly from its predecessor. This is achieved by the use of a subtle hook sentence at the end of the paragraph; this is a sentence that hooks into the new topic of the next paragraph. To correct a missed paragraph simply put this mark where you want in to be: // then, in your margin write: // = new paragraph. The examiner will not mark you down for this so long as you have not forgotten all of your paragraphs. Examine each comma Over, or misuse, of commas is a common and important error that can lose many marks. Many of you will occasionally use a comma instead of a full stop to end some of your sentences. You are failing to recognise where the end of the sentence should have been. Too much of this leads to a dreary and difficult-to-read style because it destroys the clarity and crispness that is a necessary part of all good writing. A sentence is a group of words that is about one main idea or thought. It should seem complete to its reader. Sentences that drift into several ideas, or which seem incomplete, are less clear and interesting to read. Ending a sentence with a comma (or even nothing but a space) instead of a full stop will allow it to run on or drift in this way. Try to use commas only to mark off parts of a sentence so that the sentence reads more smoothly or makes clearer sense. Look at every apostrophe. Look at the words you have used that end in s. Are they plurals? If so the chances are they do not need an apostrophe. Apostrophes are used to show when a letter has been missed out (as in: shouldnt) and when two nouns belong to each other (as in: the schools entrance). Also make sure that when you write its you do mean it is (as in its cold) not belonging to it (i.e. as in: its surface).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Importance of the Friars in Much Ado About Nothing and Measure for Meas

Importance of the Friars in Much Ado About Nothing and Measure for Measure In the plays Much Ado About Nothing and Measure for Measure, the friars are important instruments in their respective storyline because of their assumed pure intentions of using deception as a means to right the wrong-doing within the play. They have the authority to administer questionable plans of action because they are respected and trusted. The friars hear all of the confessions; therefore, they could know even the deepest of secrets. The friars, or "Fathers" take on a protective role, a paternal one. They seem to relate more with the youth, or the wronged, who become like children needing guidance in their vulnerable states. When the parents, or as in Measure for Measure, Angelo, must be contradicted, the next highest up in the chain of command is the friar. The friars assume these authoritative roles with great conviction. They seem to believe that they must protect their sheep and fight evil. Friar Francis of Much Ado About Nothing believes himself to serve as a means for jus tice, "Craft against vice I must repay" (3.1.57). In a different realm of justice, within different scales of measurement, the Friars offer their non-doctrinal mode of deception to set the world (of the play) in harmony. In Much Ado About Nothing, Friar Francis suggests a peculiar solution to amend a horrible situation in which the bride was shamed and jilted. Friar Francis seemed to be the only male who pulled for Hero's honor. He believed her when her father did not and vied for her innocence when he said, "Trust not my age, / My reverence, calling, nor divinity/ If this sweet lady lie not guiltless here/ Under some biting error" (4.1.166-9). He advised that she prete... ...acilitators when they are the only characters whose authority never is questioned. Only they can pull off the deceptive schemes that they do because no one else in the play either can be trusted, or is not in a position of power as the friars are. Friar Francis and Friar Lodowick are not despised in the end because their religious positions allow for them to be trusted in making a just and right decision. The friars restored order. Within the system of justice in which the friars operate it is not only just, but necessary, to sin by lying and deceiving, in order for love and harmony to prevail. It then becomes a question of not whether these holy men abuse Christian dogma, but on their intent behind the deceit. Thus "craft against vice" is the powerful system which allows for discrepancy concerning sin in order to combat the havoc caused by deception by evil intent.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

To His Mistress Going to Bed, Good Morrow, Corinnas Going A-Maying, an

Seduction in To His Mistress Going to Bed, Good Morrow, Corinna's Going A- Maying, and To His Coy Mistress Throughout time, one of the greatest challenges mankind has faced is the sexual conquest of womankind. In many cultures today, this challenge has evolved into an intricate courting process that often involves buying the woman flowers, gifts, and meals to persuade her to have sex. Another device that a man might use to seduce a woman is poetry. In the English language, the use of poetry to seduce women may be traced back to the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Cavalier poets such as Robert Herrick, John Donne, and Andrew Marvell embrace this method of seduction, carefully constructing verse with the intent to satisfy their carnal desires. Each of these men rely upon several literary tools to manipulate women to fornicate with them. Among the more prominent techniques is the use of logical rhetoric to reason that engagement in sex is the best choice of action. Another device that appears frequently in early seduction poetry is the imperative statement, which simultaneously prompts the woman to take action and endows her with a sense of control over the situation. Functioning in a similar manner, interrogative statements suggest the obvious truth of what the poet speaks while forcing the woman to consider his request. By using a first person plural narrative voice to address the woman whom he hopes to woo, the poet makes her associate herself with him in thought, thereby allowing for an easier transition for personal involvement. Finally, ... ...ional statements, thereby confirming the persuasive nature of these elements upon women. Works Cited Donne, John. "Eligy 19: To His Mistress Going to Bed." The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Ed. David Damrosch. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1999. 1563-1564. Donne, John. "The Good Morrow." The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Ed. David Damrosch. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1999. 1550-1551. Herrick, Robert. "Corinna's Going A-Maying." The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Ed. David Damrosch. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1999. 1579-1581. Marvell, Andrew. "To His Coy Mistress." The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Ed. David Damrosch. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1999. 1628-1629.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Autism – General Overview of Autism

General Overview of Autism What is Autism? Autism is defined as a disorder of early development that causes severe problems in thinking, communicating with others, and feeling a part of the outside world (Autism 2009). A person diagnosed with autism has a brain abnormality that affects normal brain function (Nordquist 2009). Most diagnoses of autism are usually never the same, even though, the symptoms are generally similar. Autism must not be confused with childhood schizophrenia or mental retardation, though the actions of children with these circumstances are sometimes related to that of autistic children (Autism 2009).Autism prevents children from developing normal social relationships, even with their parents (Autism 2009). Infants and Autism Autism is generally not diagnosed until two or three years old, but there is an extremely controversial argument on whether or not it could be diagnosed in infants. According to Canadian researchers, they could already see signs and symptom s of autism in infants at approximately six months old (Boyles 2005). The researchers believe that the infant is already predisposed with abnormal brain development inside their mother’s womb.The infants that Canadian researchers experimented were only limited to families that already had an older child born with autism (Boyles 2005). According to research conducted in an article of Developmental Psychology, it is not possible to diagnose and infant with autism (Charman et al. ,1997). The researchers conducted a study on thirty eight boys, separated into three different groups: Autism Risk Group, Developmental Delay Group, and Normal Group. The studies were based upon four different criteria: Empathy, Pretend Play, Joint Attention, and Imitation (Charman et al. 1997). Based on their results, it was not evident t to say whether or not a child could be diagnosed with Autism. This based upon the findings that children in the autism group and children in the developmental delay g roup were indistinguishable and the scorings were far too similar (Charman et al. , 1997) In another study conducted by Dalery et al. , they compared young children and infants who were clinically diagnosed with autism or developmental delay (DD).The researchers were trying to differentiate whether the existence of symptoms of autism making it possible to be a different developmental disorder and whether or not the symptoms increase with age (Dalery et al. 2006). In the results from children under 26 months, the findings were insignificant and eerily similar to the experiment conducted by Chairman et al. They were unable to determine if the clear signs of developmental delay or autism were definite (Dalery et al. 2006). Symptoms of Autism Children diagnosed with Autism act differently from one another and no two autistic children have the same symptoms or act the same (CDC 2007).Children with Autism have severe impairments with social, emotional, and communication skills. Some have difficulty accomplishing everyday tasks and have to maintain a consistent day to day routine (CDC 2007). A symptom of autism that affects many autistic children is they have an intricate time holding a conversation. Thus, they tend to have a hard time making friends because of this impairment (CDC 2007). Another symptom of autism is repetitive behavior. This causes a stimulating effect on the child (CDC 2007). For example, a child may consistently rock back and forth, or flip the pages of a book over and over again.Autistic children have a difficult time managing in an everyday life. Once a child is diagnosed with autism, (usually between the ages of 2-4), it stays with them for the remainder of their lives (CDC 2007). With the various symptoms of autism, repetitive behavior seems to be the most consistent symptom that is distinguishable in almost all autistic patients (Gray et al. 1995). To determine whether or not this is true, research was conducted in Australia. The researchers wanted to determine if repetitive behavior was a distinguishable sign of autism in children less than 51 months.Since there are many different types of repetitive behavior, the different types were classified into two categories: higher and lower levels of repetitive behavior (Gray et al. 1995). According to Gray et al. , higher level repetitive behavior is highly consistent with autistic children under the age of 51 months. Low level repetitive behavior was not a direct diagnosis with autism. A significant number of children with other developmental delay disorders often demonstrated aspects of lower level repetitive behavior (Gray et al. 1995). Autism and Public SchoolingWhen a parents makes the decision to enroll their autistic child into public school, it is often a difficult decision. Sometimes the decision is made because the parent does not have the means to send their child to a school specialized for autistic children. Other times it is because many autistic designed school s only accept unique or extreme cases and their child do not meet the requirements (Rudy 2009). Even though a public school is required to give adequate education to a child with a learning disability, how does the parent know what is adequate to the teacher (Rudy 2009)?A positive aspect of public schools is that children with autism can interact with normal developing peers. Researchers argue that this type of interaction may â€Å"provide opportunities for building relationships and developing social and communicative behaviors, in response both to the demands made by mainstream peers and the modeling their behavior provides (Whitaker 2004). † In a study conducted by Whitaker, the mainstream peers developed a routine with the autistic children. The mainstream peers seemed to understand and learn the routines of the autistic peer.Whether or not the autistic child received any awareness or pleasure from this type of interaction was harder to detect, even though they appeared to be enjoying themselves (Whitaker 2004). Parents of Children with Autism It is devastating for a parent to learn that their child has a severe health problem or developmental disability (Parenting a Child with Autism 2007). The first question that arises is, â€Å"How can we cure it? †, but autism is not â€Å"curable†. In the beginning, parents often find some kind of support to help them cope with the discovery or having an autistic child.They also need to educate themselves as much as possible and decide what is best for the child (Parenting a Child with Autism 2007). D. E. Gray conducts a study to see how parents of autistic children cope with their child’s illness over time. Between 1988 and 1990, he begins his study and the sample included 28 parents of autistic children. In the beginning, parents used 51 different methods to cope with the discovery of their child’s illness. D. E. Gray followed-up with these parents 8-12 years later and the method s parents used decreased dramatically to 27.Parents learned to cope with their child’s autism throughout time. Maybe this was due to the fact that the child had become less disruptive and was more orderly in their habits (D. E. Gray 2006). It also may have been due to the fact that their children were enrolled in special schools (only one was enrolled in public schools). In the beginning, parents still had to adapt to the changes in their environment and with their child. As their emotional distress decreased, so did their need for emotional support (D. E. Gray 2006). ConclusionWhile the causes of autism remain a great mystery, one fact is certain: Autism affects every area of learning throughout the child‘s life. Until research on autism provides more information about how autism affects the human brain, children and their parents who are affected will be unable to understand and fully deal with this disability. It is only with more information that we will learn the b est approach to teach autistic children and tackle this disability head on.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The End essays

The End essays While feminisms primary emphasis has historically been on womens role in the world, and the need for drastic change in our movement toward equality, feminism today does not present such a simple and unified message. Feminist scholars, vary drastically in the arguments they make about feminism from to what extent it is prevalent, what its causes are and what should be studied and emphasized to improve women as a group within society. But because women are such a broad group as whole, individual experiences of sex, race and class ultimately affects particular feminist scholars in their area of study. For while Melanie Maltry and Kristin Tuckers article Female Fem(me)ininities: New Articulations in Queer Gender Identities and Subversion focuses on the restricted historical endorsement and political legitimization of the masculinized lesbian, Audre Lordes article Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference focuses on the roles certain characteristics in life place on different iating womens experiences and needs. Meanwhile Iris Marion Youngs article Throwing Like a Girl centers on feminine body behavior and it implications. This paper will first look at these arguments individually, and will then compare and contrast the articles in order to assess the to what extent each authors argument are in line with the broad and generalized goal of feminist; to create a society in which women are equal to men. Through analysis this paper will ultimately show that authors personal background and biases seem to dominate their study, rather than their commonality as women. In their article, Melanie Maltry and Kristin Tucker examine the roles femme and butch lesbians have within their community, and how femme lesbians have historically been ignored both by the gay community and the straight community. It is important to note that this article was written in...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Has Globalisation Led To Economic Growth

Has Globalisation Led To Economic Growth Globalization is the increased interdependence of nations due to increased integration of individuals, finance and trade (Ritzer 2011, pp. 2). It is characterized by increased integration and interaction of individuals, governments and companies (Scholte 2005, pp. 2).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Has Globalisation Led To Economic Growth? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International trade and investment are the key factors that drive globalization. These two elements are the essential components of globalization. Additionally, advances in information technology allow the process of globalization to occur. Globalization affects the environment, political systems, culture and the economy. This paper seeks to determine whether globalization has resulted into economic growth in various countries. The process of globalization began after the end of World War 2. However, in the 1980s, technological developments and lib eralization of the capital markets and trade accelerated the process of globalization. Improvements in technology resulted into a reduction in transportation, computation and communication costs. The reduction in these costs enabled firms to undertake different phases of the production processes in different countries. Liberalization of trade has made many governments not to offer protection to their domestic industries. Therefore, industries in such countries face foreign competition. Hence, firms must produce high quality goods and services to be able to compete globally (Anwar 2002, pp. 411). This promotes economic growth of different countries.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Globalization increases the market that a country’s producers can access. Notably, countries that participate in globalization benefit from unrestricted trade with other countri es (Phelps 2007, pp. 371). Producers in a country are able to market their produce worldwide. In addition, a country’s economy can benefit from global division of labour. International division of labour makes domestic producers specialize in lines of production. This results into efficiency in the production processes. The result of efficiency, specialization and international competition is increased variety of products in the domestic market due to domestic and foreign production (Gup 2005, pp. 155). Additionally, consumers in a country that participates in globalization enjoy goods and services of high quality at lower prices. This is likely to result into economic growth of that country. Furthermore, countries that trade internationally due to globalization benefit from technological developments that occur in other countries. A country can benefit through acquisition of knowledge used in the manufacture of imported products (Breckenridge Moghaddam 2012, pp. 600). The c ountry can then use this knowledge to begin the production of products that it normally imports. Moreover, the country will create more employment opportunities for its citizens due to domestic production of formerly imported products. Certain governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. In many cases, these governments argue that domestic industries require protection until they develop competitive advantages (Thoumrungroje 2004, pp. 2).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Has Globalisation Led To Economic Growth? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The views of such governments are that foreign competition makes domestic firms collapse since most of them have inefficient production processes and have inadequate capital. Governments of third world countries usually reduce quantities of imported goods and services through the imposition of quotas and tariffs. However, protection of domestic i ndustries makes domestic firms produce substandard goods and services. The result of inefficient production processes and production of low quality goods is economic stagnation of a country. In contrast, globalization allows international competition and results into improvement of production processes of domestic firms hence economic growth (Arndt 1998, pp. 480). Attempts by a country to isolate itself can be detrimental to its economy. International trade enables a country to access more goods and services at lower prices. Therefore, it is appropriate for a country to participate in international trade. International trade enables a country to profit from international specialization (Arnold 2010, pp. 300). A country has to determine its comparative advantages. This enables it to survive and improve its economy. However, in case a country does not determine its comparative advantages, its economy is likely to be affected in case there is sudden unfavourable change in terms of trad e. However, international trade, which has resulted due to globalization, has risks. International trade is linked with strong market competition (Gaston 2010, pp. 3). Therefore, firms that are less adaptable and competitive internationally may collapse.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, certain industries are critical in a country’s security. Therefore, reliance in other countries to supply it with certain products may be inappropriate. This shows that globalization may not lead to economic growth. However, the benefits of globalization in promotion of economic growth outweigh the negative effects that it has in economic growth of a country. Empirical evidence has shown that globalization contributes immensely towards economic growth. East Asian countries have tremendously benefited from globalization. China and the Republic of Korea are a few examples of countries that have benefited from globalization (Greenberg 1996, pp. 1). China is the fifth largest economy that trades internationally (Welfens 1999, pp. 13). It has maintained a yearly growth rate of about 9.3% in the last 20 years. Currently, it is the sixth largest economy in the world (Peixin 2003, pp. 1). Globalization enabled China to achieve these results. Globalization enabled Korea to improve the effectiveness of market intervention strategies. This enabled Korea to improve the performance of firms such as Hyundai and Samsung (Wen-Heng 2000, pp. 1). Conversely, some countries have not benefited from globalization. Many third world countries have not managed to mix with the international economy. The share that Sub-Sahara Africa has in international trade has declined persistently. Increased association of third world countries with international trade has contributed to slow economic growth through corruption and corporate exploitation. Corporate-led globalization has led to poverty and environmental destruction in Ghana hence lower rate of economic growth (Ofosu 2010, pp. 1). The goal of this paper was to find out whether globalization has led to economic growth. Based on the arguments presented, the benefits of globalization outweigh its costs. Thus, globalization leads to economic growth. It increases the quantity of products that consumers in a country can access. In addition, it makes firms produce goods and services of high quality since they face international competition. However, not all countries have benefited economically from globalization. List of References Anwar, S 2002, Globalization and national economic development: Analyzing benefits and costs, Journal of Business and Management, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 411-423. Arndt, S.W 1998, Super-specialization and the gains from trade, Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 480-485. Arnold, R. A, 2010, Economics, South-Western Cengage Learning, Australia. Breckenridge, J Moghaddam, F 2012, Globalization and a Conservative Dilemma: Economic Openness and Retributive Policies, Journal of Social Issues, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 559-570. Gaston, N. G, 2010, Globalization and economic integration: winners and losers in the Asia-Pacific, Cheltenham, UK. Greenberg, M 1996, Globalization in Korea and Asia. Web. Gup, B. E, 2005, Capital markets, globalization, and economic development, Springer, New York. Ofosu, V 2010, The Effects of Globalization on Ghana. Web. Peixin, Z 2003, China and Globalization. Web. Phelps, A 2007, â€Å"Gaining from Globalization? State Extraterritoriality and Domestic Economic Impacts-The Case of Singapore†, Economic Geography, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 371-393. Ritzer, G 2011, Globalization: The Essentials, Chichester, West Sussex. Scholte, A 2005, Globalization: A Critical Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Thoumrungroje, A 2004, The effects of globalization on marketing strategy and performance, Washington State University, Washington. Welfens, P. J. J, 1999, Globalization, economic growth and innovation dynamics, Springer, New York. Wen-Heng, C 2000, Impacts of Globalization on Asian Developing Economies: Lessons from the Experience of Taiwan and South Korea. Web.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Cherokee Princess Myth - Common Family Legends

The Cherokee Princess Myth - Common Family Legends My great-great-grandmother was a Cherokee Indian princess! How many of you have heard a similar statement made by one of your relatives? As soon as you hear that princess label, the red warning flags should go up. While they are sometimes true, stories of Native American ancestry in the family tree are often more fiction than fact. The Story Goes Family stories of Native American ancestry often seem to refer to a Cherokee princess. Whats interesting about this particular legend is that it almost always seems to be a Cherokee princess, rather than Apache, Seminole, Navajo or Sioux - almost as if the phrase Cherokee princess has become a clichà ©. Keep in mind, however, that almost any story of Native American ancestry may be a myth, whether it involves the Cherokee or some other tribe. How it Began During the 20th century it was common for Cherokee men to use an endearing term to refer to their wives that roughly translated as princess. Many people believe this is how princess and Cherokee were joined in the popular Cherokee ancestry myth. Thus, the Cherokee princess may have really existed- not as royalty, but as a beloved and cherished wife. Some people also speculate that the myth was born in an attempt to overcome prejudice. For a white male marrying an Indian woman, a Cherokee princess may have been a little easier to swallow for the rest of the family. Proving or Disproving the Cherokee Princess Myth If you discover a Cherokee Princess story in your family, begin by losing any assumptions that the Native American ancestry, if it exists, has to be Cherokee. Instead, focus your questions and search on the more general goal of determining whether there is any Native American ancestry in the family, something that is usually untrue in the majority of such cases. Begin by asking questions about which specific family member was the one with Native American ancestry (if no one knows, this should throw up another red flag). If nothing else, at least try to narrow down the branch of the family, because the next step is to locate family records such as census records, death records, military records and records of land ownership looking for any clues to racial background. Learn about the area in which your ancestor lived as well, including what Native American tribes may have been there and during what time period. Native American census rolls and membership lists, as well as DNA tests can also potentially help you prove or disprove Native American ancestry in your family tree. See  Tracing Indian Ancestry  for more information. DNA Testing for Native American Ancestry DNA testing for Native American ancestry is generally most accurate if you can find someone on the direct paternal line (Y-DNA) or direct maternal line (mtDNA) to test, but unless you know which ancestor was believed to be Native American and can find a descendant down the direct paternal (father to son) or maternal (mother to daughter) line, it isnt always practical. Autosomal tests look at DNA on all branches of your family tree but, due to recombination, are not always useful if the Native American ancestry is more than 5–6 generations back in your tree. See Proving Native American Ancestry Using DNA by Roberta Estes for a detailed explanation of what DNA can and cant tell you. Research All Possibilities While the Cherokee Indian Princess story is almost guaranteed to be a myth, there is a chance that this cliche stems from some type of Native American ancestry. Treat this as you would any other genealogy search, and thoroughly research those ancestors in all available records.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Article the star response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Article the star response - Essay Example Very much like these church furnishings, he was as inconspicuous as the window fixtures, his skin pallid as the walls and his face topped with a few wisps of hair was left as blank as the faces of the stone-cold saints by the deteriorating disease that appears to have drained the life out of him even before his time was up. One Sunday I saw him and I said to myself, â€Å"This guy’s definitely a saint’s buddy, I bet his prayers go straight up to heaven.† That Sunday, he was strangely paler than his usual pallor and he was not walking; he was painstakingly dragging himself towards his favorite saint. I never saw him again after that Sunday. On yet another Sunday, curious on what happened to the man, I asked one of the church regulars on the guy’s whereabouts. I have learned he had died the night of the last Sunday I saw him. I never found out what disease he had but from the looks of it he may have had a cancer of some sort. Whatever condition he may have had, what happened to the man had struck questions and doubts in my mind. Why was he denied of the miracle he had prayed for almost everyday? Was the saint, his buddy, too busy to hear out his sole supplication? Was it too much to ask for him to be eased of that agonizing pain that caused him to drag his feet just to go to church? Yes. What happened to that man had caused an immense blow on my faith not on God but on the saints I take little notice of at church and I reiterate, my faith on God did not falter but doubts on these marble statues at church had launched a massive attack on my belief on what the church had introduced as ‘saints’. I stand by the basic principle that God can never be cruel and would never give false hope to Men. These thoughts clouded my mind and covered my ears which caused me to not hear what was said during the service. The service ended and I remained sitting still, oblivious to the faint bustle of the leaving churchgoers. As I came to my senses, I

Friday, October 18, 2019

Discussion topics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion topics - Assignment Example Hence, hydrolyzing protein means breaking it into its most basic units called the â€Å"amino acids† through aqueous medium with the help of enzymes which act to catalyze or speed up the hydrolytic process. Enzymes themselves are made of protein constituents which serve as biological catalysts that increase the rate of reaction (Ophardt, 2003). (2) Describe how energy is measured and the importance of energy balance for someone experiencing under-nutrition or over-nutrition. In your response, also address the implications of ideal versus healthy weight. In food, the energy (in calories) is measured by means of device called the ‘bomb calorimeter’ which subjects the food to combustion so that it burns with oxygen at a certain pressure. The heat generated is then analyzed in terms of calorific content originating from carbohydrates, protein, fats, and the rest of the food’s nutritional composition (Niedziocha, 2011). Individuals in the realm of over-nutrition expend energy much higher than the right or allowable amount whereas those experiencing under-nutrition consume energy in quantities below normal. Either case tends to cause metabolic activity that bring about diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, burns, and cachexia that is why a balanced expenditure of energy must be maintained on a regular basis (Pi-Sunyer, 2000). Factors besides energy affect one’s determination of an ideal weight so at any rate, however, energy consumption ought to account for values within the range of a healthy weight. Pi-Sunyer, F.  Xavier M.D. (2000). â€Å"Over-Nutrition and Under-Nutrition as Modifiers of Metabolic Processes in Disease States 1’2’3.† The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from on October 6,

An Assessment of the Impact of Government debt and Deficits on the Essay

An Assessment of the Impact of Government debt and Deficits on the Economic Growth of GERMANY - Essay Example Govt Debt% ? 1998 849.393 1,996 2.14 -2.99 1999 876.963 1,997 1.74 3.25 2000 841.974 1,997 3.30 -3.99 2001 890.106 1,999 1.64 5.72 2002 955.4 2,002 0.03 7.34 2003 1,042.85 2,003 -0.39 19.10 2004 1,115.94 2,003 0.70 7.01 2005 1,189.51 2,004 0.84 6.59 2006 1,227.10 2,002 3.89 3.16 2007 1,227.05 2,004 3.39 0.00 2008 1,242.06 2,007 0.80 41.85 2009 1,352.31 2,014 -5.07 8.88 2010 1,402.61 2,006 4.02 3.72 2011 1,434.37 2,008 3.10 2.26 2012 1,553.78 2,011 0.94 8.32 Source: IMF Economic outlook 2012 Â   Â   In the 1990s, when Germany took strong political measures such us reunification, the government had to face several economic constraints as government had to incur huge expenditure on the infrastructural development of the country. Most of the government expenditure was tilted towards the eastern side of Germany, which led to the problem of unemployment. Government adopted tight monetary policy in the 1990s, but it was not able to put a control on inflation as the labor costs and taxes w ere very high. The economic problems faced by the country were eventually reflected through the growth number of the country as the growth rate stayed around 2% on average for the decade (Barassi, Caporale, Hall, 2000, pp. 45-55). The labor cost in the last 1990s was very low amid low demand of goods and services, which further worsened the situation for the country. Government took various initiatives to spur domestic demand, but it failed as consumers were not willing to spend excessively as economic problems ruled the country and unemployment was at its peak. As a result, Germany witnessed sluggish growth till 2006, when it showed signs of recovery (Doornik, & Hendry, D.F. (2001). Government debt and fiscal deficit also had a profound impact on the growth rate of Germany especially before 2005. Government had to rely on heavy borrowing to finance its public expenditures or fiscal deficit. The borrowed money was mostly used to cover administrative and infrastructural expenses. Hen ce, apart from low demand, lower expenditure on other sectors had a severe impact. After, 2005 government borrowing continued at a steady pace, but the impact of government borrowing on growth was not as pronounced as it was before 2005 (Krugman & Wells, 2009). Real GDP surged to 3.89% in 2006 due to a series of reform steps taken by the government. Although, government debt increased by 3.16% in 2006, but focus on job creation and price competitiveness helped economy recover from the problems. Germany took special initiatives that drastically supported the labor increasing their productivity and motivation. It set a wage rate for all employees irrespective of company’s profitability and supply/demand condition (Brunner, 1986, pp. 709-731). Debt and Deficit When government expenditures are greater than its revenues, the excess expenditure is termed as deficit. The expenditure includes development expenditure, administrative expenditure, employee salaries and wages etc. On the other hand, sources of government revenue include taxes, interests, sale of property/financial instruments etc. In order to finance the deficit if any, government usually borrows money from scheduled banks or from external sources to finance the de

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Benefits For Company Of Upgrading To Microsoft Office 2010 Essay

Benefits For Company Of Upgrading To Microsoft Office 2010 - Essay Example In the details, it talks about the essential features of the MS Office 2010. And the last part of the report tells about the summary and the action that will be made. The purpose of this report is to change the software package the Encoder Power Plus Company (EPPC) is using and introduce the newest software package to help the workers work more productive and more effective. Encoder Power Plus Company is one of the famous encoder companies that accepts encoding and grammar checking jobs of different paper works. Most of their customers are students and workers. One of the major technologies the workers are using is the computer and one of the major software packages they are using is the Microsoft Office 2007. Recently, orders were rapidly increasing. Despite the fact that 200 workers are in the company, some orders are still not completed in time. It has been discovered from the personal interviews done and from the general discussion between the workers and the employers that due to the incomplete features of the MS Office 2007, these lead the workers to do some orders manually. The reason behind this is that some important features that are very useful and important to the encoding jobs aren’t included and are limited in the software package MS Office 2007. Due to these problems that have been discovered, it is essential to change the current MS Office 2007 to the newest one that will have the answers to the problems encountered, the MS Office 2010. The MS Office 2010 has the following features that will best help the workers: Basing from the information gathered, in order to change the currently used MS office, we need to upgrade the supported operating system. I used the internet and the Microsoft Corporation to gather the information about the cost of the product and the other essential features of the recommended package. The estimation of the cost of the product and the upgrading of the OS is about $50,000.

International marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

International marketing - Essay Example The second article is related to multinationals opening up their operations in different parts of the world, especially in the emerging markets of the economy. Discussion Article 1 The article titled â€Å"PayPal helps fuel revival at EBay† was published on October, 2012 following the announcement of the September financial results of EBay (The Wall Street Journal, 2012). The business of EBay had suffered during the first two quarters of 2012 but showed a revival in the third quarter financial results. The growth in the revenues of EBay was fuelled by the payments through PayPal. The revenue of EBay rose to USD 3.4 billion with an increase of 15% above the previous revenue generated by the business. The profits and growth of the company were further attributed to the launch of a new website and more developed features in worldwide listing and shipping services. EBay has successfully captured the global e-commerce market with its power shipping and same day shipping programs. T he shipping programs of EBay provide a significant competitive edge for the business over its competitors like and Wal-Mart stores. The new design of the eBay website was aimed at capturing more market share by offering user friendly services and fast checkout systems. PayPal was acquired by EBay Inc. in 2002 after which PayPal was used as the only electronic payments system for EBay in the United States market as well as in the global market for cross country transactions of goods and services. EBay had acquired Billpoint in 1999 to use its services for the electronic payment gateway. But Billpoint faced severe competition from PayPal which was the mode of payment for 25% of the auctions in EBay. So, EBay decided to acquire PayPal as an important corporate strategy to increase their market share and the growth of the company. The alliance of EBay and PayPal was a revolutionary alliance in the e-commerce industry which highly boosted EBay sales and attracted customers fro m all across the globe. PayPal was a main element which drove the success of EBay as an e-commerce giant in the international market. E-commerce is one of the most evolving features of globalization. EBay has enabled the users all across the world to research, buy and sell products on their site. The e-commerce site also is an important sourcing site for a number of merchants trading globally. EBay has evolved as a wide platform consisting of suppliers and buyers from different industries varying from clothing, food, accessories, furniture, books, electronics and everything else that is traded in the world. PayPal distinctively contributed to the revenue generation of EBay by increasing the customer bottom line and providing a delightful experience for the customers. In the light of globalization, EBay has successfully applied technological integration in its business processes. Article 2 The article titled Global Marketing: Local Heroes is related to the publishing of the book All Business is Local: Why Place Matters More Than Ever in a Global Virtual World by John Quelch and Katherine Jocz (The Economist, 2012). The article refers to the increasing importance of the locations for a business and the growing trend of the big companies trying to penetrate the untapped markets. The multinationals strongly targeting the emerging markets has made the world more interconnected. The companies

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Benefits For Company Of Upgrading To Microsoft Office 2010 Essay

Benefits For Company Of Upgrading To Microsoft Office 2010 - Essay Example In the details, it talks about the essential features of the MS Office 2010. And the last part of the report tells about the summary and the action that will be made. The purpose of this report is to change the software package the Encoder Power Plus Company (EPPC) is using and introduce the newest software package to help the workers work more productive and more effective. Encoder Power Plus Company is one of the famous encoder companies that accepts encoding and grammar checking jobs of different paper works. Most of their customers are students and workers. One of the major technologies the workers are using is the computer and one of the major software packages they are using is the Microsoft Office 2007. Recently, orders were rapidly increasing. Despite the fact that 200 workers are in the company, some orders are still not completed in time. It has been discovered from the personal interviews done and from the general discussion between the workers and the employers that due to the incomplete features of the MS Office 2007, these lead the workers to do some orders manually. The reason behind this is that some important features that are very useful and important to the encoding jobs aren’t included and are limited in the software package MS Office 2007. Due to these problems that have been discovered, it is essential to change the current MS Office 2007 to the newest one that will have the answers to the problems encountered, the MS Office 2010. The MS Office 2010 has the following features that will best help the workers: Basing from the information gathered, in order to change the currently used MS office, we need to upgrade the supported operating system. I used the internet and the Microsoft Corporation to gather the information about the cost of the product and the other essential features of the recommended package. The estimation of the cost of the product and the upgrading of the OS is about $50,000.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Curriculum and Instruction Case Analysis Assignment

The Curriculum and Instruction Case Analysis - Assignment Example The Principal is far more than the physical head of a school or a person with abundance of knowledge. He is also the role model and a great leader cum visionary, who propels his entire family of teachers and students towards success. In today's world of extreme competition and marketing strategies to attain that sharp edge over the others, Principals, as the head of the institution have a greater role to play. It includes living up to the expected standard of the school, while also catering to the current demands of the market; all this while obliging and adhering to the rules and guidelines prescribed by statutory bodies and boards of education in the area concerned. The case study on GATE is one such example of the number of responsibilities and decision-making abilities that must be realised by the Principal. Assuming that I am the Principal of Monet Middle School located at La Solana, I would deal with the problem, in a tactful and with a more open perspective and outlook. Since the issue deals not only with the educational point of view, but with a broader issue like heterogeneous ethnic backgrounds and the pressure to categorise students, it needs great amount of confidence and strength to chalk out a pathway to satisfy a large number of the people involved, take great care not to hurt the sentiments of the diverse population, and yet adhere to principles and codes of conduct. The case study says that the school has about 23% of the students attaining their education through the Voluntary Ethnic Enrolment Program (VEEP), about 53% of the students consisted of those qualifying for the Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) program and about 5% of the students have been recognised as those with special needs that requires them to attend the Special Education Program. With such diversified population, it is indeed an uphill task to bring and bind all of them together. The Tracking System that segregated the students was initially implemented in the school and then, it was done away with great difficulty but with immense conviction. It brought about great changes for the better and also raised the normal standard of education and results. Most importantly, it bridged the gap between students emerging from various backgrounds and with different levels of intellectual quotients. As the Principal, I am now faced with a challenge---the school board has passed an ordinance that calls for the implementation of the tracking syste

Burdens of History Essay Example for Free

Burdens of History Essay The British imperial history has long been a fortress of conservative scholarship, its study separated from mainstream British history, its practitioners resistant to engaging with new approaches stemming from the outside – such as feminist scholarship, postcolonial cultural studies, social history, and black history. In this light, Antoinette Burton’s Burdens of History: British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865-1915 represents challenges to the limited vision and exclusivity of standard imperial history. Burton’s Burdens of History is part of a budding new imperial history, which is characterized by its diversity instead of a single approach. In this book, the author examines the relationship between liberal middle-class British feminists, Indian women, and imperial culture in the 1865-1915 period. Its primary objective is to relocate â€Å"British feminist ideologies in their imperial context and problematizing Western feminists historical relationships to imperial culture at home† (p. 2). Burton describes Burdens of History as a history of â€Å"discourse† (p. 7). By this, she means the history of British feminism, imperialism, orientalism, and colonialism. Throughout the book, the author interposes and synthesizes current reinterpretations of British imperial history, women’s history, and cultural studies that integrate analyses of race and gender in attempts at finding the ideological structures implanted in language. In this book, Burton analyzes a wide assortment of feminist periodicals for the way British feminists fashioned an image of a disenfranchised and passive colonized female â€Å"Other†. The impact of the message conveyed was to highlight not a rejection of empire – as modern-day feminists too readily have tended to assume – but a British feminist imperial obligation. According to Burton, empire lives up to what they and many of their contemporaries believed were its purposes and ethical ideals. Burton based her book on extensive empirical research. Here, she is concerned with the material as well as the ideological and aware of the complexity of historical interpretation. Backed by these, the author particularly examines the relationship between imperialism and women’s suffrage. Burton brings together a remarkable body of evidence to back her contention that women’s suffrage campaigners’ claims for recognition as imperial citizens were legitimated as â€Å"an extension of Britains worldwide civilizing mission† (p. 6). Centering on the Englishwomans Review before 1900 and suffrage journals post 1900, the author finds an imperialized discourse that made British women’s parliamentary vote and emancipation imperative if they were to â€Å"shoulder the burdens required of imperial citizens† (p. 172). The author shows in Burdens of History how Indian women were represented as â€Å"the white feminist burden† (p. 10) as â€Å"helpless victims awaiting the representation of their plight and the redress of their condition at the hands of their sisters in the metropole† (p. 7). Responding both on the charge that white feminists need to address the method of cultural analysis pioneered by Edward Said and the imperial location and racial assumptions of historical feminisms, Burton explores the images of Indian women within Victorian and Edwardian feminist writing. In her analysis, the author argues that Indian women functioned as the ideological â€Å"Other† within such texts, their presence serving to authorize feminist activities and claims. By creating an image of tainted Oriental womanhood, and by presenting enforced widowhood, seclusion, and child marriage as â€Å"the totality of Eastern womens experiences† (p. 67), British feminists insisted on their own superior emancipation and laid claim to a wider imperial role. However, while feminists persistently reiterated their responsibility for Indian women, the major purpose of such rhetoric was to institute the value of feminism to the imperial nation. According to the author: â€Å"The chief function of the Other woman was to throw into relief those special qualities of the British feminist that not only bound her to the race and the empire but made her the highest and most civilized national female type, the very embodiment of social progress and progressive civilization† (p. 83). According to Burton, British feminists were, â€Å"complicitous with much of British imperial enterprise† (p. 25): their movement must be seen as supportive of that wider imperial effort. She sustains this argument through an examination of feminist emancipatory writings, feminist periodicals and the literature of both the campaign against the application of the Contagious Diseases Acts in India and the campaign for the vote. Indeed, the greatest strength of this book lies in the fact that Burton has made a n extensive search through contemporary feminist literature from a new perspective. In the process, she recovers some quite interesting subgenres within feminist writing. She shows, for instance, how feminist histories sought to reinterpret the Anglo-Saxon past to justify their own political claims and specifying some characteristic differences between explicitly feminist and more general womens periodicals. Certainly, Burton’s survey establishes the centrality of imperial issues to the British feminist movement, providing a helpful genealogy of some styles of argumentation that have persisted to the present day. Burdens of History is a serious contribution to feminist history and the history of feminism. In conclusion, Burton states that British feminists were agents operating both in opposition to oppressive ideologies and in support of them-sometimes simultaneously, because they saw in empire an inspiration, a rationale, and a validation for womens reform activities in the public sphere. Her arguments are persuasive; indeed, once stated, they become almost axiomatic. However, Burton’s work is to some extent flawed by two major problems. First, the author never compares the â€Å"imperial feminism†; rather she locates in her texts to other imperial ideologies. In addition, Burton does not subject imperialism to the same kind of careful scrutiny she turns on feminism. She does not define â€Å"imperialism† in her section on definitions, but uses the term – as she uses â€Å"feminism† – largely to denote an attitude of mind. Another problem is Burton’s failure to address the question of how feminist imperialism worked in the world more generally. It is true that feminists sought the vote using a rhetoric of cross-cultural maternal and racial uplift, however, one may ask: what were the effects of this strategy on the hearing accorded their cause, on wider attitudes toward race and empire, and, more specifically, on policies toward India? The author not only brushes aside such questions; she implies that they are unimportant. It seems that, for Burton, the ideological efforts of British feminists were significant only for British feminism. It can be argued that Burton’s difficulty in tracing the way Burdens of History works in the world is a consequence of her methodological and archival choices. The problem is not that the author has chosen to approach her subject through a â€Å"discursive tack† (p. 27), but rather that she has employed this method too narrowly and on too restrictive range of sources. While the author has read almost every piece of feminist literature, she has not gone beyond this source base to systematically examine either competing official documents, Indian feminist writings, or imperial discourses. Thus, Burton’s texts are treated either self-referentially or with reference to current feminist debates. Overall, Burton’s approach is useful in providing a critical history for feminism today, Certainly, it is as a critique of Western feminisms pretensions to universal and transhistorical high-mindedness that Burdens of History succeeds. However, if one wishes to map out the impact of imperial feminism not only on feminism today, but also on imperial practices and relations historically, one needs a study that is willing to cross the border between political history and intellectual history and to take greater methodological risks.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Analysis of Singapore Airlines Limited

Analysis of Singapore Airlines Limited Air travel remains a large and rapidly growing industry. It promotes the world trade, enhances economic growth, international investment, tourism and this perhaps makes it key to the globalisation process in other industries. The airline industry has been weighed down by numerous macro-level socio-economic factors which include rise in oil price, the Tsunami case, increase in terrorism, SARS epidemic and these have been of negative influence to the profit level of the industry (Journal of Air Transport management, 2010). Singapore Airline Limited which is the worlds second biggest airline by market capitalization with its headquarters in Singapore was formed in 1947 by British interests as the Malayan Airways but became SIA in 1972 after it split from the Malaysian airline. The company along with its subsidiaries is engaged in airlines operations, airport terminal services, engineering services and other related activities with more than 30,088 employees as at March 31, 2010. The group operates in East Asia, south west pacific, Europe, the Americas, west Asia and Africa, with 66 destinations in 36 countries on 726 weekly flights with about 106 fleets (DATAMONITOR, 2010). The group which is owned by the Singapore Government through its parent company Temasek Group owns 54.5% of the company shares. The group recorded revenues of S$12,707.3 million during the financial year ended, as on march 31, 2010 with a 20.56% decrease from the previous year. Its operating profit was S$63.2 million during the 2010 fiscal year ended which was represents a 93.0% change from the previous year also. Profit attributable to equity share holders of the company was at S$216 million with a 79.7% decrease from the 2009 financial year ended.(Singapore airlines, 2010). The decrease was as a result of low demand for airline and cargo operations as a result of the economic crisis. The primary objective of this report is to analyse the airline industry, its major market players, and alliances, examine the key driving forces of change and assess the present state of the sector in relation with Singapore airline limited. Finally this report will also concentrate on the analysis of Singapore airline limited financial statements and compare its records with one of its main competitors. 1. BACKGROUND TO THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY The airline industry had total revenue of $1380.5 in 2009 which represents an annual growth rate of 2.5% between 2005 and 2009. The airline industry volume also increased its growth between 2005 and 2009 by 2.56% to get a total of $2,002.9 million passengers in 2009(DATAMONITOR, online). The global airline industry reduced in 2009 due to the global recession but from forecasts it will develop strong growth by 5% before 2014(DATAMONITOR, online). Some of the major passenger airlines include Cathay pacific, the emirates, U.S airways, Japan airlines; air France-Klm and south west airlines e.t.c. Cathay pacific won the 2009 airline of the year title in the famous world awards replacing Singapore airlines. 1.1 AIRLINE INDUSTRY MERGERS AND ALLIANCES Deresky (2006), defined strategic alliances as partnership between two or more firms that decide they can better pursue their mutual goals by combining their resources as well as their existing distinctive competitive advantages. Airline industry mergers are formed in response to the dynamic economic conditions of the aviation industry and determine cooperate aims of competitive ratios (ECONOMIC WATCH, online). This involves leasing of airplanes and purchasing airplanes as well. For instance the case of Air France takeover of Klm in 2004 by acquiring 89% of its shares has enhanced the number of flights and offers various flight options to select from. In addition to mergers, airlines are forming alliances with one another in order to achieve network size economies through code sharing as well as scale economies in the purchase of fuel and aircraft, combining forces to make purchases serves to increase the industry players bargaining power and therefore reduce supplier power. There are 3 major passenger alliances in the airline industry which are SKY TEAM founded in 2000, ONE WORLD founded in 1999 and STAR ALLIANCE founded in 1997 with 27 members and a market share of 29.3% of whom Singapore airlines joined the group in 2000 in order to broaden its flights network and to increase its competitive advantage. Thus, this has increased SIAs global presence through code sharing as their star alliance network covers 1,160 destinations in 181 countries. 2. DRIVING FORCES FOR CHANGE/ LIMITATION Key driving forces for change within an industry are external factors which cause change to the system of interest to stakeholders in that they are considered to be beyond the control of these stakeholders. Driving forces can include changes in social, technological, environmental, economic and political factors. An examination of the factors influencing an industry is a general way to begin the industry analysis and such a study is used to develop the competitive advantage of the organization to enable it defeat its rivals. (lynch, 2006:93). This is always done by the porters five forces framework analysis. The external environment has an enormous impact on the airline industry. There has been unstable time for the airline industry. It has been confronted with a market decline in international tourism in the aftermath of September 2011 terrorist attack in the united states and more recently traffic loss attributable to the war in Iraq and several terrorist activities. 2.1 Porters 5 Forces frame work on Airline industry Threat of New Entrants. Youll need to look at whether there are substantial costs to access bank loans and credit. If borrowing is cheap, then the likelihood of more airliners entering the industry is higher. The more new airlines that enter the market, the more saturated it becomes for everyone. Brand name recognition and frequent fliers point also play a role in the airline industry. An airline with a strong brand name and incentives can often lure a customer even if its prices are higher. Distribution is not easy for new entrants as there is need for establishment of online booking system, and relationships with the sales intermediaries. Power of Suppliers. The airline supply business is mainly dominated by Boeing and Airbus which has high power. Supplier power in this industry is so much that airlines have to go into contract with the suppliers of the aircraft. Constant increase in oil price also tends to boost the supplier power of the industry. In 2010 year ended, Singapore airlines reported that 33% of its cost was fuel (DATAMONITOR 2010). Another factor that boosts the supplier power has to do with the maintenance of the aircraft as a result of cost of funding staffs, mechanics for routine check on aircraft. Power of Buyers. The bargaining power of buyers in the airline industry is on the high side. There are over a hundred of airlines companies which operate in the Asian region and as a result of this, there are numerous choices for the individual to choose from and at most times would go for the low carriers. Availability of Substitutes. For regional airlines, the threat might be a little higher than international carriers. When determining this you should consider time, money, personal preference and convenience in the air travel industry. Competitive Rivalry. Highly competitive industries generally earn low returns because the cost of competition is high. This can spell disaster when times get tough in the economy. 3. SINGAPORE AIRLINES STRATEGIC POSITION. As Porter (1986, cited in Philips and Fox, 2003) stressed that, Competing internationally is a necessity rather than a matter of discretion for many firms, this states that the success of almost every international company will depend on how effectively they can compete on an international scale. This section aims to identify the current strategic posture used by Singapore airlines limited successfully, within the era of globalisation. In the airline environment, Singapore airline has always outperformed its competitors. It has never posted a loss on annual basis, has achieved substantial and superior returns compared to its industry and has received hundreds of achievements awards for its service quality. This success has been achieved by the company through the dual process of differentiation through service excellence and innovation coupled with cost leadership among its peers. Singapore airline has achieved sustainable competitive advantage and has consistently out performed its competitors through out its three and half decade history. The key success to this may be said to be the fact that it manages to navigate through two poles which most companies think are distinct. At cooperate level, Singapore airlines works with diversification. The airline group has 36 direct subsidiaries and associated companies which includes Singapore airline terminal, Singapore engineering company and Singapore airlines cargo.(Singapore airlines,2008). Its airline subsidiaries which include 100% ownership of Silk air, 49% of Tiger airways and 49% of Virgin Atlantic is said to cover the customer areas within the industry in terms of domestic and international distance. As part of its international strategy, SIA in 2000 joined the star alliance which has been noted earlier in the report. Strategies of differentiation and cost leadership have necessitated different and incompatible investments and organizational models. A strategy of differentiation implies high quality offering and significant investment in innovation, staff development and branding which results to high cost. SIA achieves these but with a low cost. The table below outlines many of elements in relation to the dual strategy of integrating elements of differentiation and cost leadership in SIA. Table 1 Elements of differentiation and cost leadership strategies at SIA Differentiation Positioning of service excellence and superior quality, brad equity(marketing strategy) Developing the Singapore girl( hr development policies) In-flight experience(young fleet, entertainment system, gourmet cuisine-operations strategy) Cultural values and practice of constant innovation and learning. Changi airport one of the worlds best(related infrastructure) Premium pricing in Singapore and in business/first class and higher load factor as differentiation indicators. Cost Leadership Young fleet (fuel efficiency, lower maintenance costs, effective fuel hedging, paying cash for planes. Labour costs compared to major competitors (16.6% vs. 30%); continuous drive for productivity, cost reduction programmes. Related diversification through efficient subsidiaries that contribute to bottom line. Cultural values; cost consciousness, obsession with reducing wastage. Innovations not only to increase differentiation but also efficiency. Changi airport as one of the most efficient(related infrastructure) L.heracleous, J.Witz. Journal of air transport management (2009) Singapore Airlines Ltd maintained its leading position in air through stellar marketing campaigns, cutting capacity while increasing passenger load and by constantly innovating in offering the latest technology for its new products and services in-flight 4. SINGAPORE AIRLINES FINANCIAL ANALYSIS IN THE LAST 5 YEARS. Singapore airline over the past 5 years has experienced growth until the 2008 economic crisis which decreased its revenue growth by 20.56%. In terms of return on assets, the airline company experienced a downturn last year. Despite this they still show a decent ability to generate profit from each asset controlled. The 2010 ROA figure which is 1.13 is lower due to the previous years economic crisis. This is also the case of ROIC which stood at 1.71 at the end of the FY 2010(Thomson one banker), showing that the allocation of resources and investments has justified Singapore airlines. From the view point of last five years; the company has experienced growth. From the gross profit margin point-of-view the company has experienced a slight increase to 14.75 over last years 12.83. 4.1 QUICK AND CURRENT RATIO OF SIA OVER THE PAST 5 YEARS SIA over the past 5 years has made an increase in its acid ration other than in 2009 when it dropped due to the global economic crisis. in the year ended march 2010, they were able to operate a ration of 1:33 which makes it able to meet current obligations using liquid assets. on the other hand, the current ratio of 1.45 as at march 2010, is acceptable. From the financial analysis it is clear to see that even though the Singapore airlines enjoyed constant growth almost in every aspect in the analysis, the year 2009 was very difficult as earlier noted due to the financial crisis but records from the FY ended march 2010 shows its on the recovery. 4.2 COMPARISON OF SIA FINANCIALS TO CATHAY PACIFIC AIRWAYS Following the financial analysis of Singapore airlines highlighted above, a brief comparison of its finances with Cathay pacific Airways with regards to Sales, Return on Assets and Return on invested capital. SIA recorded a net sale increase of 0.15% in 2009 and 20.56% decline in 2010 where as Cathay Pacific Airways recorded a net sales decline of 22.63% in 2009 financial year. On Returns on Invested Capital, SIA recorded a 1.71% growth rate in 2010 over the 6.69% growth rate in 2009 whereas Cathay Pacific recorded 7.31% growth on Return on Invested Capital. (Thomson One Banker, 2010). This record perhaps shows the effect of SIAs business strategy and its effects on competitive advantage in the airline industry. 5 SINGAPORE AIRLINES AND ITS SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY This is concerned with company ethics and social responsibility. Singapore airlines took many activities to maintain company ethics. For instance it is the first airline in the world to fly the new Airbus A380 which is preparing for the first commercial flight of the double Decker jumbo jet from Singapore to Sidney and return. It took place in October 2007 and in a first time move, all proceeds from the sale of tickets on the first flight was donated to charity organisations. Singapore Airlines Ltd considers environmental awareness to be very important, and in 2009 introduced initiatives to reduce 550, 000 tons of carbon emissions (Singapore Airlines,2010) The companys efforts included studies on the effectiveness of carbon offsets, the maintenance of a young and modern fleet of aircraft which was environmentally efficient and the establishment of a Fuel Conservation Committee that looked into fuel efficiency, waste management and water-saving devices. SIA also took delivery of 12 new aircraft which are quieter and boast substantially lower fuel burn per-seat-kilometre and lower carbon emissions. CONCLUSION In response to the adverse business conditions within airlines, SIA planned to reduce capacity by 11% to match demand, translating to suspensions of flights on a range of routes such as to Amritsar, and use of smaller aircraft on others. Secondly, it reduced fuel surcharges on short and medium-haul segments by around 5% to 21%, with highest reduction for short haul segments in economy class, which was the most active segment in the downturn. Thirdly, it negotiated a delay of delivery for eight A380 aircraft on firm order with Airbus. Fourthly, it drastically reduced airfares and engaged in various promotional activities. This has continually kept it in top priority among its peers in the airline industry and perhaps there has been a positive forecast of the companys growth in few years time.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Paradise Lost by John Milton :: sin, death

The family reunion that takes place with Satan, Sin and Death foreshadows the fall of man. Sin and Death are personifications against broken heavenly laws: narcissism, incest and lust. Satan becomes enamored by his own creation because he sees himself in her image; "...who full oft/Thyself in me thy perfect image†¦" ll. 763-764. However, he goes on to commit two other sins as he lusts and goes off "in secret" with his own daughter. Sin, in turn, gives birth so painfully, she describes it as such, "breaking violent way/Tore through my entrails". The sins within the family are further compounded by Death who rapes his mother. Sin in turn give birth to howling dogs that forever cause her pain. Milton's allegorical representation here works with the rest of the poem because it is the most poignant example of Milton's misogynic attitude. His attitude towards women is sprawled though out the poem as depicts Eve, thus there is a parallel between Sin and Eve. Milton represents both of them as inherently evil. Aside from the fact that Sin was created from Satan's twisted thoughts, she commits no offenses against God's laws. For example, Sin gave in to her father's sexual advances and ran in fear from her son's. One can arguably say that she, as Satan's daughter acted "appropriately" submissive to her father's command. To add, she feared the vileness of her son's advances. Milton gives ample indication of Sin's unwillingness to have sex with her son when he says, " I fled, but he pursued†¦and swifter far,/Me overtook his mother all dismayed,/And in embraces forcible and foul" (ll. 790-793). Yet, the punishments for these vile sexual encounters are su ffered only by Sin. The latter advance being so vile that she suffers it incessantly as she experiences the painful births of the dogs over and over again, "hourly conceived/And hourly born" (ll796-797). This gross imagery foreshadows what Eve will soon experience after the fall of Eden. It is also important to note that Sin carries the entire burden of her family's vice within her womb as would Eve and all of her daughters. According to Milton, the original sin of procreating via sex began in the non-mortal world, and the woman suffers it by painful births.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Ethnicity and the Police Newspaper Article Essay

Ethnicity and the Police Newspaper Article Assignment Part II: Final This newspaper article will begin from week two individual public opinion of police by different ethnic groups outline. Public opinion of police by different ethnic groups there are different types of ethnic groups African American, Hispanic’s and Latino’s American. Ranging from the White House to all over this nation sometime or another there can arise many problems with different ethnic groups all the way through the criminal justice system, in our communities, and as well as in the public figure. Each group has formed their own public opinion of police African American have more encounters with police because of their skin color than any other race. The percentage rate for arrest is much higher than any other ethnic group. Have more abuse, brutality, and harassment in African American communities than other communities. Back in slavery time the brutal abuse even lead to Blacks being hung by a tree until death. Hispanic’s and Latino’s have more traffic stops than other ethnic groups, because of drug smuggling. Some cannot understand English, and have language barrier issues. Immigration and deportation poses threats in Arizona. Some groups in the past as well as today effects the opinion of the police International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) has worked consistently with community groups, television, friends, family, social media, newspaper, magazines, and many others to help stop police abuse and brutality. One of the greatest men of all time who fought hard for Black’s (Negro American, African American) rights and freedom in America, however, this race carries many names, when others are recognized as one ethnic group to another. Below are photos of many great leaders, actresses, and singers, all have and some to this present day are still fighting for Black’s rights in this nation. Although Black’s have come a long way from slavery, but remains in a struggle today simply for being born the wrong skin color. While forming an opinion of one the most recent top stories in the nation, the Washington, D.C., Navy Yard as they study more about the actions of gunman Aaron Alexis that day. Federal experts are mending together a new timeline of Monday’s mass shooting, and the reason for Alexi’s actions. In one Black woman opinion was this action of hate, revenge, mental issues, at the time of this catastrophic shooting rampage. Concerns of many are trying to figure out what was Alex’s thinking about, and why take this chance of killing 12 people, before his own life was taken. Below are some photos of the shooting. ‘One person felt him breathe’: Escape from the Navy Yard’ I Felt Him Breathe’: Escape From the Navy Yard. They say the first call for help came at 8:21 a.m. that morning, and it took officers another 30 minutes to find Alexis. Investigators believe that Alexis was concealing a shotgun with a sawed-off barrel and stock when he entered the building, though they still don’t know if that gun was in the bag he was carrying or concealed in his clothing. And they know that the people he shot and killed were mostly on the third and fourth floors. In a tragic twist, one of Alexis’ victims was standing outside Building 197, in an alley, when he was shot by a bullet that passed through a door, the FBI told NBC News’ Pete Williams Thursday. The gunman was shot by a team comprising U.S. Park Police and D.C.’s Metropolitan Police who found him in an area filled with cubicles, U.S. Park Police said. The team had to clear each cubicle, one by one, until Alexis engaged them and they shot him. In all, 12 victims were killed, eight were injured and Alexis was shot and killed in the shooting Monday morning, the deadliest single event in Washington in decades.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Indian Automobile Industry Essay

A. Introduction The Automotive Industry in India is one of the larger markets in the world and had previously been one of the fastest growing globally, but is now seeing flat or negative growth rates. India’s passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.9 million units in 2011. According to recent reports, India overtook Brazil and became the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, grew 16 to 18 per cent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12. In 2009, India emerged as Asia’s fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand.In 2010, India beat Thailand to become Asia’s third largest exporter of passenger cars. As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. More than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%), making the country the second (after China) fastest growi ng automobile market in the world in that year. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual vehicle sales are projected to increase to 4 million by 2015, no longer 5 million as previously projected. The majority of India’s car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south, west and north. The southern cluster consisting of Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the revenue share. Chennai, with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler, Caparo and PSA Peugeot Citroà «n is about to begin their operations by 2014. Chennai accounts for 60% of the country’s automotive exports. The western hub near Mumbai and Pune contributes to 33% of the market. The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar Cars, Fiat and Force Motors having assembly plants in the area. Nashik has a major base of Mahindra & Mahindra with a SUV assembly unit and an Engine assembly unit. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. The northern cluster around the National Capital Region contributes 32% of the Indian market. Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country’s largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki is based. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at their plant in Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants are also set to come up in Gujarat. Kolkata with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country. B. Major Players The Major Market Players C. Product Segmentation While there are multiple ways of segmenting this industry like based on price and engine size but the most prevalent and the official method is based on dimension. i.e. the length of the vehicle under consideration. A1 Segment – Mini – Up to 3400mm (M800, Nano) A2 Segment – Compact – 3401 to 4000mm (Alto, wagon r, Zen,i10,A-star,Swift,i20,palio,indica etc) A3 Segment – Midsize – 4001 to 4500mm (Manza, City, Sx4, Dzire, Logan, Accent, Fiesta, Verna etc) A4 Segment – Executive – 4501 to 4700mm (Corolla, civic, C class, Cruze, Optra, Octavia etc) A5 Segment – Premium – 4701 to 5000mm (Camry, E class, Accord, Sonata, Laura, Superb etc) A6 Segment – Luxury – Above 5000mm (Mercedes S class, 5 series etc) B1 Segment – Van – Omni, Versa, Magic etc B2 Segment – MUV/MPV – Innova, Tavera, Sumo etc SUV Segment – CRV, Vitaraetc While it is easy for SIAM to segment the vehicles as per dimensions but for consumers, it becomes a tad difficult. This is primarily because of the widely varying / spread out prices of the vehicles. A 2 segment, as per the above criterion, will range between 3 lakhs to 7 lakhs. And A 3 will be between 4.5 to 9 lakhs. Such wide variation in prices has distorted the image of segments in the minds of consumers. Hence, for simplicity purposes, a different segmentation has cropped up. The details are as follows:- A Segment – Approximately below 3.5 lakhs – Alto, Eon, Nano, Spark, 800 B 1 Segment – Hatchback largely below 6 lakhs – Wagon R, Indica, Beat, Santro, A Star, Micra, Estilo B 2 Segment – Hatchback majorly below 7.5 lakhs – Swift, I 10, I 20, Ritz, Figo, Polo, Liva, Vista, Jazz, Punto, Brio, Fabia, Pulse, Aveo UVA C 1 Segment – Sedan below 8 lakhs – Dzire, Indigo, Etios, Sunny, Fiesta Classic, Verito, Accent, Ambassador, Aveo C 2 Segment – Sedan below 9.5 lakhs – Linea, Manza, Verna, Rapid, Vento, City, SX 4, Verna New, Optra D 1 Segment – Premium Sedan below 15 lakhs – Corolla, Civic, Cruze, Laura, Jetta, Fluence D 2 Segment – Luxury Sedan below 25 lakhs– Superb, Passat, Accord, Camry, Sonata, Teana, Kizashi B1 Segment – Van – Omni, Versa, Magic etc B2 Segment – MUV/MPV – Innova, Tavera, Sumo etc SUV Segment – CRV, Vitaraetc If we analyze the 1st Quarter of 2012-13, then total vehicle sales has been around 6.32 lakh units. The hatchback segments has totaled to 56% of the entire passenger car sales in India. This comes to 355857 units. This clearly shows the popularity of smaller cars in the Indian market. Alto continues to be the top selling brand with 17422 in July. It is followed by Swift (11421) and Wagon R (9582) – all Maruti brands. This is an indication of how well the Maruti team has understood the Indian market. i 10, I 20, Nano, Beat, Figo, Santro& Polo are some of the high selling models in these segments and these models continue to clock more than 3000 units monthly. Nano has been a disappointment so far with huge expectations but it is showing some kind of resilience off late. As a segment, the Utility segment is showing the maximum growth. In fact, this segment has outclassed the other popular segments of A, B 1 & B 2. With 128110 units under its hood in the 1st quarter, the segment is definitely making some good progress. Maruti’sErtiga, Mahindra’s XUV 500 & Bolero has been instrumental in pushing the volumes of this segment. Innova and Omni too are raking in good numbers. What has been disappointing is the performance from the Tata Motors stable Venture, Safari and Sumo have been showing steady decline in the numbers per se but definitely possess huge potential to challenge the other models. Among the sedans, Maruti Dzire continues to lead the pack. With 11413 numbers in July, it is way ahead of its next model Verna (5300). The iconic models of City, Linea, SX4 have been showing consistent under growth and seriously calls for some introspection by their respective manufacturers. Vento & Rapid also showed some slack but given the aggression of VW and Nissan, it wont be long before they start to pull in good numbers. Tata’s Indigo and Manza were on a slightly negative terrain all these months but somehow the trend has been reversed in July. 6816 for these 2 models augurs well for the company. D. Indian Automobile Industry : Barriers to Entry (and Exit) Barriers to entry (or, BTE) are anything that hinders the movement of firms into an industry. That is, BTE reduce or eliminate the entry of new businesses into an industry. Sometimes BTE can be almost insurmountable: no new firms can enter an industry. Other times BTE can slow down the entry of new firms: new firms appear but only slow. Very low BTE, however, means that new firms can enter the industry relatively rapidly. What can act as a BTE ? 1. Amount of capital The amount of capital required to enter the auto industry is in billions of dollars. So, very few outsiders can ever hope to enter the industry. This major financial requirement services as a significant barrier to entry for many industries. The auto manufacturing industry is considered to be highly capital and labor intensive. The major costs for producing and selling automobiles include: * Labor While machines and robots are playing a greater role in manufacturing vehicles, there are still substantial labor costs in designing and engineering automobiles * Advertising Each year automakers spend billions on print and broadcast advertising, furthermore, they spent large amounts of money on market research to anticipate consumer trends and preferences 2. Limited capacity of parts suppliers Existing parts suppliers have downsized their operations to the point that they do not have excess capacity. 3. Competition There are already significant numbers of well established competitors. 4.Government regulations The stringent regulations regarding safety, design, emission standards and fuel efficiency may sometimes act as a deterrent. 5. Patent protection laws This may prevent the use of certain innovations at low cost. 6. Marketing Marketing a new brand can be difficult and very expensive. 7. Economies of scale Economies of scale give large producers a significant cost advantage over small rivals. Where a firm has grown very large and significant economies of scale exist, they can have cost competitiveness. New entrants generally start small and therefore, have much higher unit production costs than the giant firms. These new, small entrants find it nearly impossible to survive against the large rival because they just can’t be price competitive given their much larger unit production costs. 8. Entry-deterring behavior A firm can protect itself from competition by deliberately acting in a way that convinces potential competitors not to enter the industry. Some firms spend huge amounts of money on advertising to keep new rivals from starting up business. Or, firms can act exceedingly aggressive if faced with new competition by perhaps starting a major price war every time a new competitor enters their market. Lawsuits against new rivals have been used to drive them out of business or to, at the very least, raise the cost of entering the business to very high levels. 9. Knowledge and Technology Ideas and Knowledge that provides competitive advantage over others when patented prevent others from using it and thus creates barrier to entry. For eg. TATA motors have great knowledge/ experience in the automobile industry and have renowned technological advantage because of the recent acquisition and mergers. 10. Product Differentiation and Cost Advantage The new product has to be different and attractive to be accepted by the customers. Attractiveness can be measured in the terms of the features, price etc. For an entrant to attain this, it requires lot of effort as compared to an established player. TATA Nano is an example where till now, no new entrant has entered as a competitor. Barriers to Exit: Obstacles or impediments that prevent a company from exiting a market. A company may decide to exit a market because it is unable to capture market share or turn a profit or for some other reason altogether. High barriers to exit might force it to continue competing in the market. The factors that may form a barrier to exit include: 1. High investment in non-transferable fixed assetsThis is particularly common for manufacturing companies that invest heavily in capital equipment which is specific to one task. 2. High redundancy costsIf a company has a large number of employees, employees with high salaries, or contracts with employees which stipulate high redundancy payments (layoff costs), then the firm may face significant cost if it wishes to leave the market. 3. Other closure costs. Contract contingencies with suppliers or buyers and any penalty costs incurred from cutting short tenancy agreements. 4. Potential upturn Firms may be influenced by the potential of an upturn in their market that may reverse their current financial situation. 5. Government policies In India, the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 puts restrictions on employers in the matter of reducing excess staff by retrenchment, by closure of establishments and the retrenchment process involved lot of legalities and complex procedures. Also, any plans of retrenchment and reduction of staff and workforce are subjected to strong opposition by trade unions. E. Role of Non-Pricing Competition Non-price competition refers to firms competing with one another not in terms of reducing the price to attract consumers instead, in form of brand name, advertising, packaging, free home- delivery, free service, sponsorship deals and so on. These are the different forms of non-price competition. The main aim of non-price competition is product development. As products are differentiated in monopolistic competition, to prove and show how ones product is superior than others- colour, appearance, packaging, skill level etc. It is been done to create an inelastic demand for the product. Following parameters can be used for competition instead of reducing cost: Quality: If consumers must choose between two products of the same price but they can see that one is of a higher quality, they generally pick the product of higher quality. In this way, if a firm can figure out how to produce an item at a cost comparable to what its competitor charges but make it of higher quality, that firm may be able to steal the market from its competitor. Now in case of automobiles, within a given price range people generally don’t comprise with the quality aesthetics. For example : Recalls of vehicles sold. Recently, Honda Cars India Ltd recalled 42,672 units of second generation Honda City cars manufactured in 2007 and 2008 to replace their power window switch. HCIL carried out preventive part replacement of power window switch. The company is proactively replacing Power Window Switch which may malfunction in case water or any other liquid enters the driver side window. Honda Cars India is carrying out the part replacement as part of a global exercise by Honda Motor Company to ensure stringent quality standards for its products. However, a problem with this approach is that it may take some time for consumers to realize any difference in quality. Perception and Branding: In some cases, little possibility of quality differentiation exists between two products. However, the long-term sustainability of such an approach may be difficult because, as such brand advantages arise through consumer trends, consumer trends may also lead to their demise. We can take example of Hyundai’s Eon and Maruti’s Alto 800. Maruti being a well-known brand it was difficult for Hyundai Eon to compete with it. Hyundai India offers its Eon fleet within a price bracket of Rs. 2.8 to Rs. 3.8 lakhs in the country. Maruti Suzuki has pitched its Alto 800 models with a slightly humble pricing falling in the range starting from Rs. 2.4 lakhs that goes on till Rs. 3.6 lakhs in the Indian auto market. Sales Comparision between Maruti Suzuki Alto 800 and Hyundai Eon Source: Product Design: In some cases, firms may compete by changing the design of their products to make them more appealing without significantly changing production costs or quality levels. Such a strategy can prove effective at stealing business from competitors, but it can also backfire, because it can cause the company to alienate its existing consumers, who may be knowingly choosing the existing design over other products with different designs specifically because it appeals to their tastes. Product Differentiation: Not all consumers are the same. By offering a range of similar products geared toward different market sectors, firms can expand their market base. However, such product differentiation can result in significantly higher overhead costs for production. For example every model has variants in following aspects: Fuel used (petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG) Cost varients (low end to high end with addition of features like sunroof, airbags etc.) Model| Price (INR)| Mileage| Volkswagon Vento PetorlTrendline| 7,29,000| 15.04| Volkswagon Vento Petrol Comfortline| 7,75,805| 15.04| Volkswagon Vento Petrol Style Limited Edition| 8,10,805| 15.04| Volkswagon Vento Diesel Trendline| 8,44,000| 20.54| Volkswagon Vento Petrol Highline| 8,74,805| 15.04| Volkswagon Vento Diesel Comfortline| 8,90,805| 20.54| Volkswagon Vento Diesel Style Limited Edition| 9,25,805| 20.54| Volkswagon Vento Petrol Highline AT| 9,74,805| 14.4| Volkswagon Vento Diesel Highline| 9,89,805| 20.54| Sales Structure: When two firms are competing with similar products, one may be able to enjoy more market share and a deeper level of penetration due to a more effective and aggressive sales structure. By engaging in direct sales, firms can appeal to prospective buyers who otherwise would not feel compelled to buy due to advertising or other kinds of marketing. Multilevel marketing is one way in which firms rapidly build their consumer base. However, by turning buyers into sellers as well, such schemes may require significantly higher prices. A typical supply chain in Indian Automobile Industry Source: ImaginMor, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd and United Nations Industrial Development Organisation The description and the role of each of the contributors to the supply chain are discussed below. Third Tier Suppliers: These companies provide basic products like rubber, glass, steel, plastic and aluminium to the second tier suppliers. Second Tier Suppliers: These companies design vehicle systems or bodies for First Tier Suppliers and OEMs. They work on designs provided by the first tier suppliers or OEMs. They also provide engineering resources for detailed designs. Some of their services may include welding, fabrication, shearing, bending etc. First Tier Suppliers: These companies provide major systems directly to assemblers. These companies have global coverage, in order to follow their customers to various locations around the world. They design and innovate in order to provide â€Å"black-box† solutions for the requirements of their customers. Black-box solutions are solutions created by suppliers using their own technology to meet the performance and interface requirements set by assemblers. First tier suppliers are responsible not only for the assembly of parts into complete units like dashboard, breaks-axel-suspension, seats, or cockpit but also for the management of second-tier suppliers. Automakers/Vehicle Manufacturers/Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs): After researching consumers’ wants and needs, automakers begin designing models which are tailored to consumers’ demands. The design process normally takes five years. These companies have manufacturing units where engines are manufactured and parts supplied by first tier suppliers and second tier suppliers are assembled. Automakers are the key to the supply chain of the automotive industry. Examples of these companies are Tata Motors, Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda. Innovation, design capability and branding are the main focus of these companies. Dealers: Once the vehicles are ready they are shipped to the regional branch and from there, to the authorised dealers of the companies. The dealers then sell the vehicles to the end customers. Parts and Accessory: These companies provide products like tires, windshields, and air bags etc. to automakers and dealers or directly to customers. Service Providers: Some of the services to the customers include servicing of vehicles, repairing parts, or financing of vehicles. Many dealers provide these services but, customers can also choose to go to independent service providers. The increased usage of IT at different tiers of the supply chain is on the increase in all the companies in India. An important finding that emerged from the findings was that the integration of supply chain is being done at all the cities in the country i rrespective of the market share. F. Key Developments in Indian Auto Sector Major Developments & Investments * Nissan Motor India Pvt Ltd is expecting to sell over 60 per cent more units this year on the back of the launch of its upgraded small car – Nissan Micra * Daimler India Commercial Vehicles (DICV) exported its first lot of 64 Fuso trucks manufactured at its Oragadam plant in Chennai. * Mahindra USA, a subsidiary of Mahindra and Mahindra (M&M), will set up an assembly and distribution centre, expanding one of the four tractor facilities in North America, by January 2014 * The Japan-based automobile manufacturer Isuzu Motors’ local subsidiary Isuzu Motors India has entered into an agreement with Hindustan Motors (HM) for contract manufacturing of Isuzu SUVs and pickup trucks * A year after introducing the popular ‘MINI’ range of cars in India, luxury car maker BMW has started local production of ‘MINI Countryman’ at its facility in Chennai * New Holland Fiat India plans to invest Rs 1,100 crore (US$ 184.56 million) to set up a new green-field pl ant in Maharashtra and also to increase its tractor manufacturing capacity by 50 per cent in the next three years * Hero MotoCorp has bought a 49.2 per cent stake in its US-based technology partner Erik Buell Racing (EBR) for US$ 25 million. This is Hero MotoCorp’s first-ever equity purchase in an overseas company. Also, Hero MotoCorp has entered into the African continent with launch of its brand and products in Kenya, where it has also set up an assembly unit. The company has also partnered with Ryce East Africa to sell its two-wheelers in the country * Daimler is developing its Indian commercial vehicle operations as an export hub. Daimler India Commercial Vehicles (DICV) will export locally assembled trucks from the conglomerate’s Mitsubishi Fuso range in 15 markets in Asia and Africa. Government Initiatives The Government of India plans to introduce fuel-efficiency ratings for automobiles to encourage sale of cars that consume less petrol or diesel, as per Mr. Veerappa Moily, Union Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. The Union Budget 2013-14 announced by Mr. P Chidambaram, the Union Finance Minister, Government of India, in the Parliament on February 28, 2013, had a few add-ons for the industry. The analysis by Deloitte on the Union Budget highlighted the following: * The period of concession available for specified part of electric and hybrid vehicles till April 2013 has been extended upto March 31, 2015 * The basic customs duty (BCD) on imported luxury goods such as high-end motor vehicles, motor cycles, yachts and similar vessels was increased. The duty was raised from 75 percent to 100 percent on Cars / motor vehicles (irrespective of engine capacity) with CIF value more than US$ 40,000; from 60 percent to 75 percent on motorcycles with engine capacity of 800cc or more and on yachts and similar vessels from 10 percent to 25 percent * In addition, an increase in excise duty from 27 to 30 per cent has been allowed for SUVs with engine capacity exceeding 1,500 cc, while excise duty was decreased from 80 to 72 per cent, in case of SUVs registered solely for taxi purposes * An exemption from BCD on lithium ion automotive battery for manufacture of lithium ion battery packs for supply to manufacturers of hybrid and electric vehicles * The excise duty on chassis of diesel motor vehicles for transport of goods reduced from 14 per cent to 13 per cent Moreover, the Government of India allows 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) in the automotive industry through automatic route. The Government also plans to accelerate the supply of electric vehicles over the next eight years. It is expected that there will be a demand for 5-7 million electricity-operated vehicles by 2020. The contribution of automotive sector in the gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to double, reaching a turnover worth US$ 145 billion in 2016, with special focus on export of small cars, MUVs, two & three wheelers and auto components, as per the Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-2016. Road Ahead Global and Indian manufacturers are focusing their efforts to develop innovative products, technologies and supply chains in the industry. Car makers are launching a slew of car models, mostly compact SUVs, in the coming months. The automobile body SIAM expects the launches to be able to brighten the market. Lastly, the vision of AMP 2006-2016 sees India, â€Å"to emerge as the destination of choice in the world for design and manufacture of automobiles and auto components with output reaching a level of US$ 145 billion; accounting for more than 10 per cent of the GDP and providing additional employment to 25 million people by 2016.† G. Major Challenges and Suggested Measures Challenges: 1. Strong decline in economic growth- * It affects the consumer buying behavior- Buyers driven by fear of job loss, moved aggressively to increase their rate of saving. At the same time, high cost and growing longevity of motor vehicles prompted buyers to postpone purchases that they might have otherwise made. * Freezing of credit markets meant cancelledorders, unpaid supplier invoices, and ‘temporarily’ shuttered plants. * High excise duty- 12 % for sub 4 meters cars and 24 % for over 4 meters cars. * High interest rates as well as difficulty to obtain loans for purchase. 2. Duplicate spare parts- Indian market has always suffered from duplicate products and cheap counterfeits. This puts pressure on OEMs to reduce the prices and compete with these cheaper counterfeits. According to the study conducted by market research agency nielson co with acma, 41 % of total spare parts belong to OEMs and OESes, 23 % belong to imported segment and 36 % are duplicate. 3. Lack of infrastructure- Lack of proper road infrastructure, resulting into heavy Traffic has become major concern in most of the cities in India. Parking problem, parking cost adds to it. Bad roads, Bad drivers on road further add to the problem. 4. Availability of skilled man-power- As per data published by NSDC(National Skill Development Corporation), automobile sector in India is going to face a shortfall of 35 million skilled manpower by 2022. Limited availability of skilled manpower is bound to pose a great challenge to the positive growth of the Indian automotive manufacturing industry. 5. High Ownership cost- Small car sales are likely to fall by a couple of percentage points in 2013-14 due to continued uncertainty over income growth, high fuel costs arising from a deprecating rupee and still relatively high inflation.Diesel cars will lose their sheen, particularly in the small car segment, due to the gradual deregulation of diesel prices and the expected fall in petrol prices. 6. IR related issues- The $73 billion automobile sector has witnessed abhorrent industrial unrest in the recent 5 years with disputes in Maruti Suzuki, Hero Honda, Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India, Rico,Hyundai, Ashok Leyland, MRF, Apollo Tyres, Sona Koyo and Toyota Kirloskar Motors Ltd. Thissector, to generate double revenue needs a flexible workforce of 25 million with an amicableatmosphere to hire and fire workers to cope with the cyclical swings in demand for cars, trucksand bikes but the archaic labour laws governing employment of contract labour has fan thesetensions. This speculates the lack of efficient implementation machinery. Industrial unrestsaccompanying murders of the executives have also been committed in 2-3 instances recently,demonstrating the urging to address the issue by the social partners. 7. Global competition— Competition will only increase in the years to come, as more international players enter India and the pace of innovation accelerates. This would elevate both R&D and selling and distribution costs, thereby impacting margins. Despite these headwinds, India would continue to remain an attractive market, as volumes across segments are projected to grow at a five-year compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 10 per cent. Suggested Measures India has a very low car penetration about 10 per 1000. This number is expected to become 382 by 2025, this means that there is plenty of room to each automobile giant to grow in Indian market without affecting the volume of other competitors. Few of the following suggested measures may have a bounce back effect on the Indian Automobile Industry; 1. Friendly government policies: Tax benefits for R&D development and Skill related investments, subsidies for hybrid vehicles are the measures if taken can boost the Indian automobile sector. Similarly extension of 200 % weighted deduction of R & D expense under income tax law andweighted deduction of 150 % for expenditure in skill development by industries seem to be positive steps towards the cause. 2. Healthy Industrial Relations through better contract worker policies: As in most of the developed countries thecontract workers are covered under the social security provisions and are paid at par with the permanent workers. Such transparent policies may definitely promote positive industrial relations and foster industrial growth. 3. Technology up gradation measures-Automobile industry is slowing down, but at the same time we are seeing long waiting periods for new launches, which means people are no longer going for same old trusty brands and models and want more value for their money. Which gives me hopes that if Auto makers focus on launching more new models and more global launches they will surely find customers. 4. Promoting Hybrid vehicles or better fuel efficiency—To counter the problems of high fuel prices, it’s the need of the hour to develop higher fuel efficient products and also the products running on alternative fuel to decrease the ownership cost. For this concession on import duty on specified parts of hybrid vehicles are necessary. Stringent laws and strict exercise to eliminate spurious auto-spare part business. 5. Ensuring easy loan availability–The industry should also approach the banks and NBFCs for better and easier loan availability to the car buyers. 100% finance and lower EMI with longer loan tenure will definitely help.