Thursday, November 28, 2019
Colonists How would our country have been different if the colonists had landed on the Pacific Coast instead of the Atlantic? The country might have been less developed in the area of the United States, and the nations capital might have been in California or some other state on the West coast of the United States. What might have been some changes if it would have been on the West coast? The Nations Capital could have possibly been in California or in another West coast state, and it might have not been called Washington D.C.. The states might have had different names and locations. Less developed East Coast could have possibly been a change. The Civil War might have taken place in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, And California. The East Coast might have been the youngest area of the United States. Different people might have settled here. Japan or Russia could have settled here and we might all be speaking Russian or Japanese. The United States might have not been called the United States but it might be called something else. If the Colonists have settled on the West Coast the United States would have been different in many ways. Other people might have established the United States and we might not have been called Americans. We are lucky that the Colonists settled on the East coast and not the West or the United States might have been different in a lot of ways. History Essays
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Crafting Strategy Essays Crafting Strategy Paper Crafting Strategy Paper Henry MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Crafting Strategies is based on conclusions from decades of research that tracked 11 organizations through important moves they made in the observed period. . Patterns were marked and lumped as strategies, graphically showing distinct periods of stability, flux, or global change. (Mintzberg:75) His thesis: strategizing is more of crafting a strategy a potter shaping clay aware of her past experience and her future prospects as she performs her craft.. In contrast, the popular notion of bosses rationally and precisely plotting strategy in corporate meetings is an inaccurate depiction of strategizing and therefore misguides those who adhere to this notion uncritically. The article only seems to tilt towards an emergent approach to strategy. The author argues that a key to managing strategy is the ability to detect emerging patterns and to help them take shape. A managerÃ¢â¬â¢s job is not merely to see ahead but to detect patterns and get involved when the time is ripe. (Mintzberg:74,75). But Mintzberg also clarifies that all strategy making Ã¢â¬Å"walks on two feet: deliberate and emergent. Ã¢â¬ Purely deliberate precludes learning, and purely emergent has no control. Neither approach makes sense, which explains why strategy means emergent and deliberate behavior. (69) MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory therefore also aptly captures the ideal mix of the four archetypes of Richard WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s classical, evolutionary, systemic, and processual schools of strategy. These archetypes are in fact meant as conceptual reference points, set up in descriptive archetypal quadrants that are not necessarily exclusive of each other. In his interpretive article, William Sheridan aptly applied WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptual framework. His summary of Whittington is this: that strategic thinking requires conceptual space in which there is room for different policies, tactics, and intelligence gathering. Within each strategic space, the four archetypal quadrants each stand up for different assumptions, goals, methods, and perspectives. Sheridan translated the four quadrants into their operational core as behavioral, institutional, societal, and cognitive. He said strategic thinking now means anticipating and preparing for implications and consequences of present actions. Whether acting alone (classical), on behalf of another(evolutionary), or as adviser (processual), or as societal leader (systemic) , strategic thinking (considers ) the interests of all stakeholders to protect systemic integrity. (Sheridan: full article). Sheridan then intertwined Whittington and Mintzberg: The craft of strategy consists in identifying the mix of appropriate policies, deploying them as needed, and staying alert to the prospect that changing circumstances will require changing the mixture. Citing Mintzberg, within the context of Whittingtons four schools of strategy, Sheridan summed up that strategy is not predominantly rational modeling nor formal planning, but rather an informed overview, of which the key factor is the breadth of strategic thinking also labeled as wisdom in Crafting Strategy. (Mintszberg: 69 ) MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory captured the four archetypes of Richard WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s classical, evolutionary, systemic, and processual schools of strategy archetypes that characterized the potter as a craftman strategist. Theoretical Underpinnings, Assumptions on strategy, business environment or organizations of the essay : Is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview rational or based on logic/chaos/uncertainty? Are the assumptions realistic? In the book Critical Approaches to Strategic Management by David L. Levy, Mats Alvesson and Hugh Willmott the authors concede that much current thinking on strategic management is anchored on the work of Michael Porter and Henry Mintzberg. Mintzberg and colleagues (1998) with their ten schools and five definitions of strategy. My own random survey of literature on strategic management shows the complexity of the task of selecting strategies, and the overload of very involved prescriptions and descriptions of strategy. Levy and group have panned against Mintzbergs approach for its skeptical look on established classical and rational perspectives. They note that his views miss broader issues of domination and fail to scrutinize managerial assumptions. For example, Mintzbergs view on power tends to look at this issue narrowly within an intra-organizational perspective that eschews broader social and political issues, according to these same authors. Though Mintzberg shares the basic comprehensive perspective of Whittington, I believe his school of thinking shows a palpable emphasis on the micro side of strategic management. Under his method, broader social issues affecting management concerns ( for example , current issues as the Wall Street crash and our problems in Iraq, etc) would have to be relatively relegated to the rear ground, and this may not serve the end of strategic management. Sheridan is right that in terms of social insights, critical theorists of strategic management have the edge. In the present essay, Mintzberg cited the example of GM as a large and complicated organization, describing the complexity and confusion that gets tucked under the veneer of strategic order meetings, debates, dead ends, folding and unfolding of ideas as the company pursues its strategies. (68) From its lens, Crafting Strategy sees the reality hidden in the veneer of strategic order. As a craft theorist, one would see alternately a balance of chaos or order. The craft theorist would therefore not just think of new clever strategies, but allow them to develop gradually. His strength would be in the intuitive balance, his espousal of both learning and controls, his responsiveness to the material at hand. (69) In this context the theory is receptive to application, creativity, and intervention. Crafting Strategy: Main strengths and weaknesses Ã¢â¬âPersuasive Power and Basis of Persuasion Within the framework of its own assumptions and findings, Henry MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Crafting StrategyÃ¢â¬ has a persuasive expressive content. It however presents a doubtful diminution of previous schools of strategic management , arguably presenting itself as a comprehensive modifying school of thought. (Sheridan: c. 2003). On the other hand it has yet to offer operational tools for managers confronted with, for example, labor unrest or racial inequity. Of course its adherents may argue that managers schooled in its perspective would have the sensitivity and other skills of the craft, but as negated by Levi et al, its relative de-emphasis on broader social issues may limit management leaders from the optimal application of established strategic tools. If anything can be said on Crafting Strategy , it is that its arguments are always nuanced. For example, it upheld both the grass roots approach to strategic management, and its opposite, the hot house strategy, estimating Reality falls somewhere between the two. (68) There is however no evidence presented that traditional tools espoused by other schools of thought have necessarily become obsolete, even granting that those findings on the research basis of its thesis have been validated. Also, the example of 11 observed firms may be a statistically insignificant in a universe of millions of counterparts in other countries. Finally I find the potter inadequate as a metaphorical parallel of corporate reality. The metaphor fails to capture the sophistication of managing complex emotions, social distinctions, biases, intrigues, competition in the marketplace, corporate politics, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦that are the problems of strategic management.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Small Business Enterprise - Assignment Example such provides basic amenities to the guests mainly in the form of a 7feet by 4 feet room and a TV to stay for the night comfortably at reduced costs. The company wants to expand abroad and build on the path of innovations. However among the major problems that the company is facing one of the problems is the problem of finance. The company is reeling under the problems of debt that is due to the fact that the no. of guests that the hotel entertains is very less. In case of a small enterprise the issue of performance is often overlooked. This is more so in a family owned business like that of Lubic. However, developing the necessary business skills is of paramount importance in managing the performance of a small and medium sized enterprise. This is because in case of the small and medium sized enterprise which are family owned the responsibility to handle the business is means of hereditary succession. However, if the successor is not worthy then the business performance is put to jeopardy. In order to improve performance it is sometimes required to introduce change. In order to restructure the business of the Lubic hotels for examples there are several changes that have to be introduced and if the business has to survive in the long run it has to embrace this changes. In order to see whether the proposed changes are working a review of the performance is taken after the changes have been implemented for a period of time. The small business enterprise that has been selected for discussion is a Japanese hotel named as Lubic small hotel. This hotel is formed to provide comfort accommodation to its customers at an affordable price. Since the concerned hotel is a small enterprise it is operated with the employee strength of only 8 members. Lubic small hotel had to face many obstacles and challenges in carrying out its business in Japan. The weakness that was encountered by the hotel is it faced the problem of inadequate supply of capital to renovate its hotel and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Research in Motion Entering a New Era of Marketing - Case Study Example With the combination of the three, companies gain a more competitive advantage in the market. The consumer population is attracted to the most modern, advanced and attractive commodities (Rantanen, 2005). In the business of mobile phones, the scenario is the same. This paper will discuss the RIMÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing plan and the improvements the company can make on the basis of a general marketing analysis. Research In Motion deals with mobile phones and handsets. The company enjoys over 20 yearÃ¢â¬â¢s existence in the market. However, the existence of the company in the market has taken shifts in the modern century corporate environment. The number of competitors is significantly increasing. It is for this reason that the future of RIM is questioned. With the coming of smaller firms in the market, RIMÃ¢â¬â¢s future is greatly threatened. For instance, the coming of Samsung in the market has greatly threatened the significance of RIM. Over the past two years, Samsung commodities have more demand in the market than I-phone and the Blackberry. Apart from demand, other companies are stepping up their marketing strategies. These factors are increasingly putting pressure on RIM to upgrade its marketing strategies. With the increase of consumer demand on mobile phones, RIM could be losing a lot of profits due to competition. In the case analysis regarding mobile phones and telecommunication, competition lies as the main problem. Apart from the competitors, the consumer should be pleased with the product an organization offers. Competition in this industry is based on technology and trends. We live in a society where trends and technology is a basic want for all consumers. When it comes to mobile phones, the current consumer population looks at the technologically advanced features of a gadget. For instance, gadgets with the Android operating system have greater market recognition than phones which do not have this operating system (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010).
Monday, November 18, 2019
Community College Visit - Assignment Example The Campus offers career training in more than 50 fields. The campus admits students of all ages as well as from all walks of life who are eager to utilize various programs that are offered there. The campus was the first of the DCCCD that offered nursing programs. The campus has recently established associations with various top-notch hospitals in the region. Moreover, it is the only campus within DCCCD that offers food and hospital programs. The campus is a Hispanic-serving institution as well as a member of the Hispanic institutions of universities and colleges. HIS university or college is a campus where the total Hispanic enrolment comprises a minimum of 25% of the entire enrolment. The campus has grown from just being a campus and it now has two sub-branches of the main campus. The sub-branches include El Centro down town campus, west Dallas campus, and Bill J. campus. The two sub branches are also located in the downtown region of Texas. The west Dallas campus is a one-stop location in down town Texas where students can meet with the college advisors, register for their course of choice, as well as speak to the financial aid advisors. This campus is the only college present in west Dallas. The college academic programs are stepping-stones for learners who want to transfer to four-year institutions, for education students who are looking for courses associated with personal development, high school students seeking to get a dual credit, that is for high school completion and college credit. Furthermore, the college offers programs for students seeking associate degrees or certificates to take on entry-level positions at the place of work. Whatever the need of the students, the college has programs that are designed to achieve it. For student seeking degree programs, the campus offers a variety of degrees, which include, associate in arts, associate in science, as well as associates in applied sciences. Moreover, the campus
Friday, November 15, 2019
Microbial Mats: A Bioreactor of Lithification Microbial mats: a bioreactor of lithification and an indicator of Earths evolution Introduction Microbial mat is a general term that is used to describe a variety of microbial communities that are found at interfaces between different types of material, mostly on submerged or moist surfaces such as estuarine environment and salt marshes (Krumbein et al., 1977; Nicholson et al., 1987). Bacteria and archaea are two main microbes forming the layers. Microbial mats contain a variety of different but essential trophic groups including primary producers, consumers, and decomposers. This is why even though microbial mats are, to an extreme extent, geographically small, they are ecosystems from an ecological perspective. Microbial mats are dynamic ecosystems in which a wide range of metabolic processes take place. Inside this tiny ecosystem, different physical and chemical environments are distinguished by a variety of gradients, include but not limited to light, oxygen and sulfide (Visscher and van den Ende, 1994). The gradients may not be always constant. For example, oxygen concentration may have varied from diurnally to seasonally. In some aquatic systems, it will drop from supersaturated to undetectable within a few centimeters. The light penetration depth is fluctuated because of change of seasons or just with cloud covering. All these temporal environmental oscillations mentioned above, will result in coupled reactions, that are critical to the biogeochemical cycle, like reduction and oxidation of elements such as carbon and sulfur. Therefore, heterogeneity of microbe habitat is a common character that exhibits among all microbial mats.Ã Microbial mat ecosystems can be viewed as a semiclosed system which require little more than sunlight to function, as such it is efficient in all kinds of reactions and element cycling. The relatively simple but functional structures make it, to a certain extent, easy to reach equilibrium and mass balances. Generally, microbial mats tend to have high rates of oxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, sulfate reduction, and sulfide oxidation (Canfield and Des Marais, 1993; Revsbech et al., 1986), when compared to other benthic ecosystems. A classical view of a microbial mat (Figure 1)(Visscher et al., 2000) is that a fixed sequence of microbial groups exists: starting with oxygenic cyanobacteria as a surface community, underlain by oxygenic phototropic bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria as subsequent layer (Krumbein, 1983). This view, however, was later questioned and revised. Structure and the layers are not a result of different metabolic reaction types, on the contrary, they might be found in association with the cyanobacterial layer. Some research showed that the sulfur reducing bacteria was also found in the surface layer (FrÃ ¼nd and Cohen, 1992; Visscher et al., 1992). Microbial mats and mineral interaction In microbial ecosystems, when the precipitation rate of minerals is faster than that of dissolution, lithification will occur. Precipitations mediated by microbial mats is not limited to carbonates but also constituted by other minerals, such as gypsum and anhydrite (Ehrlich, 1998). Among all these precipitation types, carbonate precipitation is perhaps the most important process as it is directly related to the global carbon cycling. Therefore, in this section, a main focus will be put on sedimentary biofilms in hypersaline environments to help with the interpretation of the rock record. 2.1 Stromatolites and carbonate precipitation Stromatolites are lithifying organic sedimentary structures formed by microorganisms (Figure 2). Carbonate precipitation activities of microbial mats are trapped and recorded in stromatolites layered structures. As such, microbial mats can be viewed as bioreactors (Dupraz et al., 2004a). The stromatolites structure is characterized as an alternating soft and hard layers whose heights ranges from a few centimeters to two meters. The evolutionary processes of stromatolites remain largely uncharacterized (Zavarzin, 2002). There are two major hypotheses. Des Marais (1997) speculated that microbial lithification is a result of by-product of microbial metabolism. On the other hand, McConnaughey and Whelen (1997) suggested that this could be directly related to the consequence of microbes harvesting energy from protons released during calcium carbonate precipitation. However, regardless of origin, stromatolites have thrived for a long history that could be seen as a major evolutionary advan ce for us to study the Earths early history and global biogeochemical cycles. Cyanobacteria have played a crucial role in carbonate precipitation as shown in Figure 3. Two microbially as well as physicochemically controlled factors determine carbonate precipitation: the saturation index (SI) and exopolymeric substances (Lozano-GarcÃ a et al.). SI = log(IAP/Ksp), where IAP denotes the ion activity product (i.e. [Ca2+]*[CO2-]) and Ksp, the solubility product of the corresponding mineral (10-6.37 for calcite at 25Ã °C, 1bar atmospheric pressure and 35 PSU salinity (Zeebe and Wolf-Gladrow, 2001)). If IAP > Ksp, the solution is supersaturated, and when SI > 0.8, calcite carbonate tends to precipitates (Kempe and Kazmierczak, 1994). Or else, calcite carbonate will dissolve. The [CO32-] depends on the carbonate equilibrium, which comprises three species as followed: H2CO3, HCO3 and CO32-. In another word, pH is influencing the precipitation. Therefore, before investigating how microbial metabolism affect the CaCO3 precipitation, understanding production and consum ption of inorganic carbon and the environmental pH change is a prerequisite. EPS act as a chelator for cations and the template for crystal nucleation (Costerton et al., 1995; Decho, 2000). It is constantly modified by including but not limited to UV radiation, pH and microbial degradation (e.g. through hydrolysis, decarboxylation). 2.2 Microbial mats and lithification Contemporary microbial mats, vertically laminated ecosystems, resemble the layered sedimentary structures of stromatolites. As such, they have been attracting extensively research interests for being analogues for stromatolites. Shown in Figure 3, there are 6 different functional groups of microbes exist in microbial mats. From top of the figure to the bottom are: Cyanobacteria act as primary producers, which are believed to affect the trapping and biding of sediments; Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, which gain energy from oxygen respiration and organic carbon; Anoxygenic phototrophs, mainly purple and green bacteria, which using HS- for photosynthesis; Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), which respiring organic carbon with SO2- while producing HS; Sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB), chemolithoautotrophs that oxidize HS with oxygen or nitrate while fixing CO2; fermenters, using organic carbon or sulfur compounds as electron donor and acceptor. However, this view of the mat composition is facing challenge because nucleic acid sequences will undoubtedly reveal more diverse and complex community structures than the simple classified ones. Cyanobacteria is more like an important mediator of biogeochemical cycle of the mats ecosystem. It produces oxygen for the whole system to be functional (Fenchel, 1998). As mentioned before, the mat ecosystem is very efficient and productive. The relatively high photosynthetic rates, which shows a diurnal fluctuation, will reach its peak in the afternoon. Aerobic heterotrophs respire during the daytime when there is abundant oxygen, thereby creating an anoxia environment at twilight. Fermenters degrade complex organic molecules into smaller ones and benefit the SRB. SOB and anoxyphototrophs have contributed less to carbon fixation comparing with cyanobacteria and the role of fermentation remains ambiguous. All these activities above have resulted in steep vertical geochemical gradients with extreme diel fluctuations (Figure 3). To understand the role of microbial mats in precipitation and dissolution, it is important to determine both the abundance and metabolic activity of these key functional groups. Because the quality and quantity of EPS are largely determined by the metabolic activity of the community. In the previous researches, several microbial mat systems have been found to produce carbonate phases: travertine in hot springs in Yellowstone (Fouke et al., 2000), dolomite in Lagoa Vermelha, Brazil (Vasconcelos and McKenzie, 1997) and Salt Pan, Bahamas (Dupraz et al., 2004a). However, there are still mats that will no lithify or fossilize. So here comes the question, what determines the lithification potential? A previous study, using a combination of geological and microbial techniques, of lithifying microbial mat systems in hypersaline lake system was carried on in Salt Pan in Eleuthera, Bahamas (Dupraz et al., 2004a). The lake is not deep with an average depth less than 60cm. From the shoreline towards the center of the lake, a gradient from lithifying mats to jellylike soft mats exists (Figure 4). The shallow water column was found to contain cyanobacterial pigments that efficiently quench the sunlight. Not surprisingly, the photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, sulfate reduction are generally higher and geochemical gradients are steeper in the shallower lithifying mats. Moreover, EPS is easily destructed by strong UV radiation in shallower mats. This process helps with removing inhibition of precipitation by releasing more Ca2+ into the environment. The combination of these processes benefits carbonate precipitation. 2.3 Microstructure of precipitation and EPS UV radiation will cause browning reactions, dehydration and alkalinity. However, EPS production in stromatolite mat can prevent damages such as desiccation of the mat, retains essential nutrients, and provides water channels for transporting metabolites and signaling compounds (Costerton et al., 1995; Decho, 2000). Decho, A.W. et al. (Decho et al., 2005) had shown that EPS production in a stromatolite mat accounted only for 8% of 14HCO3uptake during the light, and a rapid turnover followed during the dark. They concluded that despite the fast rate of production, the net EPS production was low. The production and consumption are in equilibrium. Once being hydrolyzed, EPS components were readily consumed by the mat community, particularly anaerobes instead of aerobes. This is somehow surprising that when Schizothrix EPS, xanthan, or sugar and amino acid monomers and polymers that comprise EPS were supplied in mats, stimulation of anaerobic heterotrophic activity stimulation was greater than aerobic heterotrophs activity (Decho et al., 2005; Visscher et al., 2000). The combined action of fermentative organisms and SRB could be responsible for this high consumption rate. Oxygen levels are influenced by the rapid and extensive diurnal fluctuations as well as cloud cover and O2-consuming cell clusters in the EPS can produce anoxic microenvironments, therefore, the anaerobic pathway plays an important role in microbial EPS degradation. EPS can not only release Ca2+and HCO3 during microbial alteration, but also influence chemical gradients, which will in turn affect the mineral phases. The EPS matrix preferably slows down the mobility of hydrated Mg2+, therefore, temporarily increase relative abundance of Ca2+(Figure 5). The delay of Mg diffusion would lead to a decrease of the Mg2+:Ca2+ ratio of mineral products forming inside the EPS (Verrecchia et al., 1995). As mentioned above, changes in the amount or type of EPS could influence the rate of precipitation or types of crystals formed. 2.4 Microbial metabolism and saturation index Simple redox reactions form the basis of microbial metabolism. These metabolic reactions often involve C and either O, S or N (Figure 3;(Fenchel, 1998)). Daytime and nighttime metabolism of the six key functional groups is typically different, especially when it is influenced by oxygen and sunlight. Chemical alterations of the microenvironment that result from different metabolic reactions might change the alkalinity and thus facilitate carbonate precipitation or dissolution (Visscher and Stolz, 2005). Microbial mats have a high metabolic activities, thus it is not surprising that the rapid SI changes, despite the internal buffering capacity of the carbonate system, would result in a chemical alteration of the microenvironment. High rates of cyanobacterial photosynthesis cause a rapid depletion of CO2, which challenge the resilience or reestablishment of the carbonate equilibrium, and the increasing alkalinity will results in carbonateprecipitation through removal of the Hthat is pro duced in the latter reaction. It should be noted that in these reactions, organic carbon is assumed to be CH2O and different outcomes are expected with different organic compounds. For example, CO2produced bythe decomposition of carboxylic acids, will potentially increase the carbonate alkalinity by CO2degassing(Visscher et al., 1992). As such, this could probably explain why heterotrophic aerobes have been shown to precipitate carbonate. Microbial mats as an indicator of sulfur evolution The sulfur cycle has evolved over the long history of the Earth, with the concentration and the isotopic fractional abundance much different between Precambrian and contemporaneous environment (Cameron, 1982). The surface environment of the early Earth was basically reducing. Little atmospheric oxygen existed. Even though it is still under debate how the oxygen was produced at first, a majority of researchers believe that the history of atmospheric oxygen and seawater sulphate are closely linked (Habicht and Canfield, 1996; Ohmoto et al., 1993; Walker and Brimblecombe, 1985). Sulphate in Archaean and early Proterozoic sediment was found to be consistent in 34S depletion, which is similar to meteorites and mantle-derived igneous rocks (Cameron, 1982; Monster et al., 1979). Moreover, sulphate level was found to positively influence the rate of 34S depletion as lower levels sulphate (
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide :: Accounting Finances Businesses Essays
Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide, by Robert Murdick, R. Carl Moor and Richard H. Eckhouse, attempts to tie together the broad policies and interrelationships that exist among the many functional areas which undergraduate students typically study. The authors intend the text to supplement the typical case book and/or computer simulations used in teaching business strategy (ix). Situational analysis is presented, as is a structure for developing strategy. Practicality and real world experience is combined with educational theory to provide as complete a picture as possible of strategy in business. The authors have divided the text into 15 chapters with no further subdivisions. It is possible, however, to group the chapters into specific areas of study. For example, the first chapter, "Business Failure -- Business Success," examines why businesses fail, and provides the reason for continuing with the remainder of the text. The next two chapters focus on the "field of action," including the business environment and the business system. The fourth and fifth chapters introduce strategic management (chapter 4) and the struggle not only to survive, but to prosper using strategic management (chapter 5). Chapters Six through Nine address specific functional areas (marketing, accounting/finance, production, and engineering/research and development). Chapters 10 and 11 introduce the reader to the problems of managing human resources (chapter 10) and data processing resources (chapter 11). The last four chapters discuss the issues involved with analyzing business situations. Multinational business analysis is the subject of chapter 12, while chapter 13 turns the reader's attention to how to conduct an industry study. Chapters 14 and 15 focus on how to analyze a case and illustrations of case analysis, respectively. The text concludes with an appendix of symbols used by those who evaluate reports and a general index to topics within the book. The authors make good and frequent use of charts, graphs, forms and other graphic techniques to illustrate their points. Each chapter concludes with a selected bibliography that the student may use for additional research. The book is printed entirely in black ink; the use of color for key concepts would have enhanced the book's value as a teaching text. Visually, the book is crowded without much white space for readers to make notes. Key concepts could also have been separated from supporting text in a more clear manner. While each chapter has a summary, they do not have an introduction or a listing of key words of concepts that the student should learn as a result of studying each chapter. Such aids would make
Sunday, November 10, 2019
MAN 3301 Human Resource Management Dr. Jerry Schoenfeld A Model For Analyzing Cases In Human Resource Management Purpose of Cases A case is a written description of events and activities that have taken place in an organization. Cases allow you to experience a different kind of learning Ã¢â¬â learning by doing. They are intended to give you an opportunity to actively experience the reality and complexity of the issues facing practicing mangers and human resource executives.While other disciplines like physical science allow you to test theories in a laboratory, performing a case analysis allows you to apply human resource management theories to specific organizational problems. Completing a case analysis will help you develop your analytical and problem-solving skills. Cases enable you to analyze organization problems and to generate solutions based on your understanding of theories and models of effective human resource management (HRM). Both a Ã¢â¬Å"decision-makerÃ¢â¬ and an Ã¢â¬Å"evaluatorÃ¢â¬ approach are used in cases.In the decision-maker approach, the primary goal is to sort out information given and to propose a viable solution to the problems(s) identified. In the evaluator approach, the human resource management decisions have already been implemented, and the primary goal is to evaluate outcomes and consequences and to propose alternative solutions. For this case assignment you will be in the decision-maker role. Student Preparation of Written Cases There are any number of possible approaches to analyzing a case. The most important point to remember is that case analysis involves decision making.There is no absolutely right or wrong solution to a case problem. Your major task as a decision maker is to present a coherent and defensible analysis of the situation based on human resource management concepts and theories. Just as managers in the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ must persuade their colleagues and superiors that their proposals are sound , so must you persuade your fellow students and your instructor that your analysis of the case and proposed solution are the best. You should follow a few preliminary steps before preparing your written analysis. First, give the case a general reading to get an overall sense of the situation.Put it aside for a while, then read it a second time and make notes on the critical facts. Case facts provide information and data on attitudes and values, relative power and influence, the nature and quality of relationships, the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and human resource management policies/functions, and other pertinent aspects of the organization. Keep two key questions in mind as you review the facts of the case: First, are there discernible patterns in the facts? Second, what can be inferred about human resource management practices in this organization from the facts presented?You should attempt to classify, sort, and evaluate the information you have identified in this prelimina ry step. Once you have a clear understanding of the critical facts in the case, you can prepare your written analysis using the five-step model that follows. Written Case Analysis Model Please follow these five steps in your written case analysis. Please have a separate section heading for each of these five steps along with a brief introduction and conclusion. Your completed case should be no longer then 10 double-spaced pages using 12-point font. It should be well written and free of grammatical errors.Step 1. Problem Identification. The first step in your written analysis is to explicitly identify the major problem(s) in the case in one or two clear and precise sentences. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"The major problem in this case is a 15 percent increase in employee turnover compared to last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s rate. Ã¢â¬ Herbert Simon, who received a Nobel Prize for his work on management decision-making, has defined a problem as Ã¢â¬Å"a deviation from a standard. Ã¢â¬ In other words, one way to identify a problem is to compare some desired state or objective with the actual situation. A problem or series of problems may revent the organization from reaching its objectives or goals. A key point here is that in order to define a problem, there must be some type of standard for comparison. Possible standards include the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s stated objectives or goals, objectives or goals of competing organizations, or standards based on normative prescriptions from human resource management theory. Note: While you may be able to identify more then one problem in the assigned case. State clearly what is the main problem and complete subsequent steps in relation to this problem. Step 2. Identify the Causes of the Problem.Before proposing alternative solutions, the decision maker must have a clear understanding of the underlying causes of the problem. HRM problems are usually embedded in a larger context. This means the decision maker must examine internal and extern al environmental factors over time to isolate causal factors. Causes of problems tend to be historical in nature. To formulate a solid understanding of the specific causes, you should search for root causes and use relevant course concepts and theories to better define them. The Ã¢â¬Å"question syndromeÃ¢â¬ approach may be beneficial here: Why did the problem occur? When did it begin?Where does it occur? Where doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it occur? What effective HRM practices should the organization be using? What has the organization failed to do? What are the antecedents of the problem? Posing these questions will help you to probe beyond the symptoms to the root cause of the problem. The process of identifying the cause of a problem is very much like hypothesis testing. You should set forth possible causes and then test them against the facts in the case. In writing this section, it is important to present a plausible discussion of the causes so as to convince the reader that your analysis is correct. Step 3. Alternative Solutions.This step involves developing alternative solutions and evaluating their contributions to resolving the problem(s) identified. Proposed alternatives should be consistent with the problems(s) and cause(s) identified. You should develop at least three possible alternatives in addition to those offered within the case. You may propose more than three. List each of your alternatives and the advantages and disadvantages associated with each. Keep the following criteria in mind as you evaluate your alternatives: time constraints, feasibility, cost, contribution to meeting the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives, and possible negative side effects.Developing a list of good alternatives involves creativity and avoiding preconceived attitudes and assumptions. It may be useful to brainstorm possible solutions before weighing their advantages and disadvantages. Note: Your alternatives should cover the entire domain of human resource management functional activities. However, it is important that you do not combine various activities into one alternative. For example, you should recommend that the hospital pay more, offer more benefits, overhaul their selection process, and provide more training all within one alternative.Step 4. Select the Best Alternative. Indicate the one alternative you have chosen that Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ solves the problem. It is important here to justify why you chose a particular solution and why it will best resolve the problem(s). Again, I recognize that doing more then one alternative would be better. But if you have to choose just one alternative (and you must choose just one), which one offers the greatest potential benefits toward addressing the problem(s). Step 5. Implementation Steps. Now that you have a solution, you must develop appropriate action plans to implement it.In this section of your written analysis, you want to specify, as much as possible, what should be done, by whom, when, where, and i n what sequence. For example: Who should implement the decision? To whom should it be communicated? What actions need to be taken now? What actions need to be taken later? If you recommend that the organization revise its performance appraisal process, give as much detail as possible on the content of the revisions. Finally, in this section you should also indicate follow-up procedures to monitor the implementation of your solution to ensure that the intended actions are taken and that the roblem is corrected. While these steps have been presented in linear fashion, case analysis does not involve linear thinking. You will probably find yourself thinking about all of the parts of the analysis simultaneously. This is perfectly normal and underscores the complexity of decision-making. To present a clear written analysis, however, it is important to write up your report in the analytical form just described. As you gain experience with the case method, you will end the course with a bet ter understanding of both your problem-solving ability and effective human resource management practices.Pitfalls in Analysis Amateurs at case analysis often encounter the pitfall of jumping to a conclusion, which in effect bypasses analysis. For example, a student may readily observe some overt behavior, quickly identify it as objectionable and, therefore, assume it is a basic problem. Later, with some dismay, the student may discover that the prescribed action had no effect on the Ã¢â¬Å"problemÃ¢â¬ and that the objectionable behavior was only a symptom and not the actual problem.Another common mistake is for students to reject a case because they think there is insufficient information. All desirable or useful information is seldom available for analyzing and resolving actual problems in real organizations. Consequently, managers must do the best they can with the information available to them. Furthermore, the main issue in solving the problems of many organizations is to det ermine what additional and relevant information is available or can be obtained before adequate analysis can be made and appropriate action taken.If additional information is available, the manager must decide whether it is worth getting, whether it is meaningful and relevant, and whether it can be secured in time to be useful. Thus, an apparent lack of information in cases is actually a reflection of the reality that students must learn to accept and overcome. Students occasionally search for the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ answer or solutions to cases and sometimes they ask their instructor what actually happened in a case. Although some answers or solutions are better than others, there are no Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ answers or solutions.What actually happened in a case is usually irrelevant Ã¢â¬â the focus of case study should be on the process of analysis, the diagnosis of problems, and the prescription of remedial action rather than on the discovery of answers or end results. Many of t he cases were in the process of being studied and resolved at the time the pieces were written. Consequently, the real life outcomes are not always available. Although some of the cases do include what happened, no case is intended to illustrate either right or wrong, effective or ineffective solutions to human resource management problems.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Consequences of Puritan Depravity and Distrust as Historical Context for Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown Essay Example
The Consequences of Puritan Depravity and Distrust as Historical Context for Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown Essay Example The Consequences of Puritan Depravity and Distrust as Historical Context for Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown Paper The Consequences of Puritan Depravity and Distrust as Historical Context for Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown Paper The Consequences of Puritan Depravity and Distrust as Historical Context for Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown by Michael E. McCabe Puritan doctrine taught that all men are totally depraved and require constant self-examination to see that they are sinners and unworthy of Gods Grace. Because man had broken the Covenant of Works when Adam had eaten from the Tree of Knowledge, God offered a new covenant to Abrahams people which held that election to Heaven was merely a possibility. In the Puritan religion, believers dutifully recognized the negative aspects of their humanity rather than the gifts they possessed. This shadow of distrust would have a direct influence on early American New England and on many of its historians and writers, one of which was Nathaniel Hawthorne. The influence of Puritan religion, culture and education along with the setting of his hometown of Salem, Massachusetts, is a common topic in Nathaniel Hawthornes works. In particular, Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown allows the writer to examine and perhaps provide commentary on not only the Salem of his own time but also the Salem of his ancestors. Growing up Hawthorne could not escape the influence of Puritan society, not only from residing with his fathers devout Puritan family as a child but also due to Hawthornes study of his own family history. The first of his ancestors, William Hathorne, is described in Hawthornes The Custom House as arriving with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 with his Bible and his sword (26). A further connection can also be seen in his more notable ancestor John Hathorne, who exemplified the level of zealousness in Puritanism with his role as persecutor in the Salem Witch Trials. The study of his own family from the establishment of the Bay Colony to the Second Great Awakening of his own time parallels the issues brought forth in Young Goodman Brown. In looking into the history of Salem and especially early Puritan society Hawthorne is able to discuss the merits and consequences of such zeal, especially the zeal of the Half-Way Covenant of 1662, the Puritan Catechism of John Cotton, and the repercussions of The Salem Witch trials. Hawthorne sets Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ into a context of Puritan rigidity and self-doubt to allow his contemporary readers to see the consequences of such a system of belief. HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s tale places the newly wed Puritan Brown upon the road to what may or may not be a true conversion experience. The conversion experience Ã¢â¬â a sudden realization brought about by divine intervention, a vision, or perhaps a dream Ã¢â¬â easily translates into the dream allegory of HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s work and allows the author to use Puritan doctrine and the history of Salem to argue the merits and consequences of such a belief. Major issues and themes of Puritanism must have been researched and delicately placed into HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of not only past consequences of Puritan zeal but also on the contemporary religious issue of his own time, the Second Great Awakening. Much like the nighttime witches Sabbath that awaits Goodman Brown, the tent revivals of the 1820Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s could be seen by the questioning Hawthorne as another attempt by the church to sway its membership towards total obedience and faith. The importance placed on this event by Goodman Brown shows the importance placed on the conversion experience itself. It can be argued that the Half-Way Covenant Ã¢â¬â itself a means by which Puritanism attempted to hold onto its congregation Ã¢â¬â as an antagonist cast further doubt onto the later generations of Puritan society. As the second generation of Puritans were born in America they lacked the zealousness of the first. Waning membership within the congregation made what would come to be known as the Half-Way Covenant an attempt by the church to solve this problem. The Covenant allowed the children of church members to be baptized and become part of the congregation, thus bolstering membership. But in order to be a full member and receive communion the conversion experience was still necessary. Much like the Ã¢â¬Å"journeyÃ¢â¬ in which Brown placed so much significance, the fact that further doubt was now placed upon new members of the church would cause later problems in Puritan society and Salem itself. In a further attempt to deal with lack of zeal within the church, church hierarchy controlled not only the congregationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and laws, but also its education. In order to stress the consequences of such an education Ã¢â¬â one that would teach a child that man was not only suspect but also guilty of depravity Hawthorne would have most likely relied on Puritan educational history as a setting for the newly married Browns self-examination. In the setting of the tale, Brown would fall under the Half-Way Covenant, and his education under Goody Cloyse in part fosters the need within Brown to enter the forest at night and seek the true conversion experience that would allow him full membership. As Benjamin Franklin V states in Goodman Brown and the Puritan Catechism, Hawthorne used John Cottons Milk for Babes as the education source of Goodman Brown. It was the Puritan belief that man must be instructed to realize his own depravity, and therefore at childhood the education began. In order to understand Browns own background as it pertains to his duty as a Puritan, Franklin returns to Cottons original Catechism. Produced by the students at Florida Gulf Coast University under the direction of Dr. Jim Wohlpart.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Colonialism and freedom struggle in India Colonialism and freedom struggle in India Introduction:Ottoman Caliphate:Goals:Effects:Mobilization Capacity of Islam:Extra-territorial Attachments:Concept of Ummah:The Institution of Khilafat:The Balkan wars:Dimensions:Protests in India:The Rowlett Act 1919:The Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919:The Non-Cooperation:The Khilafat Conference-Ã Karachi- July 1921:The Hijrat Movement 1920-21:The Moplah Revolt-at Malabar Coast-Ã Kalicut:The Increase in Violence 1921:The Developments inÃ Turkey:Conclusions:Related Introduction: Khilafat Movement (1919-24) was a religious-political campaign launched by the Muslims for having possession of the Ottoman Caliphate or Khilafat-e-Usmania and for not letting the Muslim holy places go under the control of the Non-Muslims. Ã¢â¬ËKhalifaÃ¢â¬â¢ is an Arabic word derived from the root Ã¢â¬ËKhalafaÃ¢â¬â¢ which means Ã¢â¬Ëto followÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëto come afterÃ¢â¬â¢. During the 1stÃ World WarÃ Turkey supported Germany as the country was facing massive problems. But Germany started losing its territory and so does Turkey. TurkeyÃ had lost most of its territory in 1918 by the end of the 1st World War. During that time the main dilemma was how the allied powers would treatÃ Turkey, theÃ Ottoman EmpireÃ or the Khilafat-e-usmania as most of its territory had been occupied in this Movement. Turkeybeing a Muslim country, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help them. The other reason for supporting them was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah. Ottoman Caliphate: Ã¢â¬ËCaliphÃ¢â¬â¢ is an Arabic word which means Ã¢â¬Å"a successorÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"a representativeÃ¢â¬ which emphasizes religious authority for the head of state. The Islamic system of governance in which the state rules under Islamic law is known as Caliphate. To protect the Ottoman Empire from the Western countries and to overcome the Western democratic opposition inTurkey, Ottoman emperor Abdul Hamid II had launched a Pan Islamic program. This program expressed religious passion and sympathy amongst Indian Muslims. Goals: Following were the goals of the Movement:- Ottoman Caliphate should be kept secured. TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s territorial harmony should be preserved. Not letting the Muslim holy places go under the control of the Non-Muslims. Effects: InIndia, this was the first religious-political Movement which gathered the common man. The Indian Muslims demanded certain safeguards from the British and they started interacting with the other communities and the Congress Party. But during that time from 1906 to 1919 politics was restricted to only educated people and also people who had enough money to spare the money involved in the politics. However it was due to Khilafat Movement where common man gathered or the ordinary Muslims were involved, people were on streets protesting. This was the 1st Movement inIndia to get common people involved in the politics. Mobilization Capacity of Islam: Khilafat Movement also showed the mobilization capacity of the Islam amongst the Muslims. It also conveyed how Islam and Islamic institutions are precious to the Indian Muslims. Thus it clearly indicated that Islam had had a lot of mobilization capacity and appeal for the common man inIndiaand elsewhere. Extra-territorial Attachments: Another characteristic of this movement is that it points out the extra-territorial attachment of the Muslims of India based on Islam. The meaning of extra-territorial is that people feel attached to a certain institutions, ideologies, beliefs that may be beyond the territorial boundaries of their own countries. And these extra-territorial attachments have always been very strong in Muslims which are based on Islam. Ã Concept of Ummah: The concept of Ummah is that Muslims residing in any part of the World belongs to an ideological brotherhood of Islam. It is a community based on the beliefs, teachings and principles of Islam. And therefore the concept of Ummah had a lot of Muslims coming forward during the Khilafat Movement. The Institution of Khilafat: The Indian Muslims paid much more attention to Khilafat-e-Usmania whose primary seat was inTurkeywhich had continuity from the original institution of Khilafat in Islam. Institution of Khilafat was the second aspect which created extra-territorial sentiments amongst the Muslims. Ã The Balkan wars: If you go back in the history to 1911-12 you will find the Balkan Wars. This war clearly signifies the strong sentiments of the Indian Muslims for other countries. During that period there was a war between Turkey and Italy and Italy was also attackingLibya.Turkeywas facing massive problems therefore the Indian Muslims sent medical delegation to provide medical assistance to the people affected by war. And now the Indian Muslims in 1919 are showing the same sentiments on the bases of Ummah. Therefore there were a lot of emotions and a lot of support for the possession of Khilafat Movement. These were some of the reasons why Khilafat Movement is so important. Dimensions: The writers and poets in Indiawere focusing on themes such as the generation and the decline of the Muslims, this all happened during the first three decades of the 20th century. And their writings clearly portray the feelings for the preservation of Khilafat and the possession of the Muslims holy places. The key role was played by the journalism which steer the direction of the struggle. There were many other themes by the writers and the poets which shaped the movement and recovered the problems faced by them. Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Comrade and Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. were the prominent newspapers and magazines which performed their duties to express their hatred. When these newspaper and magazines were pleading the cause of the Muslims, the Allies imposed humiliating terms on vanquishedÃ Turkey. After the 1st World War ended,Turkey had lost many of its territories, it was in this context the Indian Muslims started a movement that is known as the Khilafat Movement. Protests in India: All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay now known as Mumbai in July 1919 which shaped the activities of the Muslims regarding the Khilafat Movement. Their first Khilafat Committee conference was held in Delhiin 1919 where they used to discuss the issues occurring in the movement. In the first conference Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru also participated. It was due to Congress participation, the other major political parties join hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. Following were the steps announced: No Participation in Victory Celebrations: This was the first step taken by the participants of this Conference. As the British and the Allies had won the 1st World War they were celebrating their victory everywhere,India being a part of theBritish Empire was on the BritishÃ¢â¬â¢s side. So they decided in the Conference to boycott the victory celebration to show anger on the state of affairs and to express their point in more affective way. Boycotting British Goods: The second step which they took is to boycott British goods, the purpose of doing this was to affect their economy. By adopting this British economy would drop drastically. Non-Cooperation with the Government: This was the third step which they took during that time, the purpose of this was not at this stage but at the later stage they may also launch Non-Cooperation Movement. The second Khilafat Conference which was an important one was held inAmritsarin December 1919. All the major political parties participated in this but the highlight of this Conference was that Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, who were held behind bars for breaking British law in protest of British policies, also joined the Conference after their release from prison. Without Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali contributions one cannot discuss the Khilafat Movement. They used to work with Congress party and also played a significant role in mobilizing the masses. They were well known as Ali brothers. The Ali brothers with several other leaders went to jail quite a few times due to shape up the Khilafat Movement and lead the Muslims. This procession happened whenever they were released. At the end of the Khilafat Conference the Congress party decided to work together as there were similar problems inIndiawhich all of them were facing. For Muslims the Khilafat Movement was their priority compared to the other issues. Congress thought of combining up with the Muslims as they were also having problems against the British for the possession of theOttoman Empire. Congress and Muslims would have more effective movements together rather than working separately as their aim is to eliminate the British from their country. One of the issues which were faced during that time was Rowlett Act, 1919. The Rowlett Act 1919: This was a kind of black law, whereby the government had the power to arrest anybody they wanted without giving them any legal facility and the right to appeal. This law was meant for any criminal activities which took place, but actually they were intern for the people involved in political activities. This act was protested by both the Hindu and Muslim communities. The Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919: The Jallianwala Bagh was a place inAmritsarwhere many people of different classes and societies came in order to protest against the Rowlett Act. To this protest the British government got extremely agitated and ordered the army to kill everyone present there. The gates were shut and many rounds were fired by the British. This massacre was one of the greatest tragedies thatIndiasaw. This allowed different political parties to challenge the British authority. The Non-Cooperation: In the December of 1920 the famous Congress session was held atNagpurby Congress leader Mahatma Gandhi. Here Gandhi adopted the non-violent and non-cooperation movement. The first movement adopted by Gandhi was the non-cooperation movement and subsequently a couple of other movements were launched. The general agreement was that: People with British titles to their names had to return those titles, for example Sir which was given to the Indians had to be returned. The educational institutions and courts had to be boycotted. Anyone whose job was under the British people had to resign. Taxes should not be paid to the British Government. People resigning from military and police jobs would be decided at a later stage. This was not launched but could be thought about later on. The Khilafat Conference-Ã Karachi- July 1921: In July 1921, the Khilafat conference was held atKarachiwhere there were mainly Muslim participants who expressed their loyalties towards the Turkish Sultan and the Khilafat. At that time they had been removed from their territory by the British powers. To dislodge foreign forces from the mainland they welcomed the efforts of the Ataturk. At that time the Ataturk was taking various steps to remove the foreign forces from their mainland ofTurkey. They felt that something new needed to be encouraged. The Hijrat Movement 1920-21: The main reason of why the Hijrat movement took place was that the Indian Ulama or religious leaders thought ofIndiaas Ã¢â¬ËDarul HarabÃ¢â¬â¢ where the Muslims were not safe. A certain place or a country where the Muslims are not allowed to perform their religious practices and activities is known as a Ã¢â¬ËDarul HarabÃ¢â¬â¢. The Muslim heads (Ulama) said that the Muslims should move to the nearest safe place that was from Ã¢â¬ËDarul HarabÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËDarul IslamÃ¢â¬â¢. This caused a panic amongst the Muslims in India and as suggested the nearest Ã¢â¬ËDarul IslamÃ¢â¬â¢ was Afghanistan which was Hijrat. A very large number of lower class people of society left India either on foot or with the help of bullock carts as the routes to Afghanistan were not developed. The properties were sold at very cheap rates as they were moving from their place to a place in search of Islam; a large scale of migration of people was seen. At first the Indians were welcomed. Later on the border was closed as the increase in the number of people could not be sustained due to Afghanistan being a poor nation and its own problems it told the Indian migrants to move back to its own country. Due to this there were loss of lives and belongings of several Muslims. Many Muslims died during this mission. Many of the people moved to Russia(Soviet Union) as they had nothing left in India. This was the way in which the Hijrat movement ended as it was all emotion based and not planned based. The End of the Khilafat Movement: This was a movement where the Muslims of British India supported the Ottoman Empire to control their holy places but gradually the movement died out. The first thing which affected the movement was the Moplah revolt in Kalicut. The Moplah Revolt-at Malabar Coast-Ã Kalicut: The Moplah revolt started in 1921.The descendants of Arab Muslims were called as Moplahs. In the August of 1921 there was a revolt against the Hindu landlords because of their brutal treatment towards them. This wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a religious issue. The Moplahs were suffering by the actions of the landlords so they revolted against them, but the police supported the landlords. This was projected as a Hindu Muslim issue by the local Hindu Unions. Due to this there was a lot of issue against the Muslims. These issues resulted in a bitter relationship amongst the Hindus and Muslims. A negative impact was seen in the Hindu Muslim unity because of the uprising. This was a reason for the end of Khilafat movement. The Increase in Violence 1921: The second reason to why the movement did not last was an increase in Violence. The Non- cooperation movement started by Gandhi was a peaceful and non violent movement. Seeing an increase in violent activities like the Chora Chori incident in Uttar Pradesh, Gandhi decided to end the Non-cooperation movement. This affected the Khilafat movement as GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to end the Non-cooperation movement was not consulted with Khilafat movement leaders which thus created distrust between the two operative parties. This was another incident which weakened the Khilafat movement. The Developments inÃ Turkey: This was the third reason to why the Khilafat movement ended. The Ataturk who controlled the military service emerged as leader. The powers of the Sultan were restricted. The chief of the Grand assembly was the Ataturk. Turkey abolished the Khilafat system. The Indian Muslims were fighting made no difference as the leadership had changed. This weakened the Khilafat movement in India. Conclusions: The Hindu Muslim unity phase was extremely short. It was seen that religion was a way to mobilize forces and organize masses. Extra- territorialism was the basis of the start of the movement. The Muslims suffered in the Khilafat movement.
Monday, November 4, 2019
The housing bubble and Indy Mac bank - Essay Example Moreover, many borrowers could not pay the loan back, as the bank did not check the authenticity of the borrower before disbursing the loans. So the bad loans accumulated with the bank. The bank had no such provision to sell the property and pool money because the purchasing power of the buyers in the market had reduced considerably and no one was willing to buy property. This was the situations which like the other bank Indy Mac Bank also faced, which led to its failure. Finally it was acquired by FDIC and Indy Mac became Indy Mac federal Bank. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 INTRODUCTION 4 ANATOMY OF THE FAILURE 6 The Subprime Mortgage crisis 6 Subprime Spill and Indy Mac Bank 7 Initial Signs of Warning 7 THE AFTER EFFECTS OF FAILURE 8 CONCLUSION 9 Work Cited 11 Date: November 19, 2012 To: **************** From: **************** RE: Analysis of the failure of Indy Mac bank with respect to housing bubble of 2008. According to CNN Money, July 13 2008, the fall of the Indy Mac B ank, the most important mortgage lender, was the most expensive collapse in the history. This proved again that crisis still existed. The Indy Mac Bank was acquired by the Federal Regulators. It was said that about 95 percent of the bank deposits were insured. This means about $1billion were not covered under the FDIC cover or guarantee. This could have affected about 10,000 customers of the bank and they could have lost half of their deposits. However, the failure of the IndyMac would charge the Insurance Funds around $4-$8 billion. This was regarded as one of most costly failures ever (Clifford, and Isidore Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of IndyMacÃ¢â¬ ). INTRODUCTION Bank failures are not new phenomenon. There was just two years from 1934 to 2007, when none of the banks collapsed or failed. During the 1990s when the world economy was going through extreme loan and savings crisis, at an interval of 1.38 days 1 bank failed. However during 2007 crisis this rate slowed down to 2 banks. Around thi rty-two bank collapsed during this time as stated by Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). However, in July 2008, Indy Mac Bank, which was the third largest bank in USA, failed. Though during 2007, the bank showed signs of survival by focusing on a growth based business model, and maintaining capitalization level high to face the storm. Indy Mac grew swiftly during the boom of real estate and housing. The customers or buyers were asked for few or no evidences of their earnings and allowed loans to buy property such as houses. Since the house prices were increasing, so when a buyer could not pay back his/ her loan, the bank took possession of the home and found investors for it to pool money. However, when this housing bubble burst, the price of the real estate began to fall and the losses for the bank begin increasing. The loans that were taken became bad and bank had to suffer losses because there were not enough buyers in the market to buy those properties and pool money f or the bank. Indy Mac lost about $184.2 million in its first quarter of 2008 and it was expecting higher loses in their second quarter. The bank also lost about $614 million in 2007 by focusing on Alt-A sector of mortgage. However, finally the bank authorities accepted that it could no longer
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Rise of Strategic Management Accounting - Essay Example Management accounting systems ideally provide information regarding all aspects of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s transactions; by covering all spectrums of the organisation they represent an important source of information for decision making. As mentioned above, traditional management accounting has come under attack for failing to provide sufficient information for strategic decision making purposes. This failure lies in the inability of traditional management accounting to fulfil those information requirements that would contribute to both the competitiveness of the organisation vis-a-vis its competitors in the industry, and its long term performance. Langfield-Smith states that surveys of practice in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s suggested that the adoption of SMA was slow; others also go on to mention that it was illÃ¢â¬âdefined and it is unclear in terms of coverage. Others have said that there are gaps in the understanding provided by SMA and this is attributed to various interpretations th at have been put forward by writers advocating its use. This paper explains the difference between management accounting and financial accounting. ... Management Accounting versus Financial Accounting Management accounting is distinct from financial accounting in that it provides information to persons internal to the organisation to facilitate decision making, while financial accounting provides information for external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders are the management personnel of the organisation, based within various departments/sections/divisions working together to achieve organisational goals. External stakeholders include shareholders, advisors, potential investors, regulators, government authorities and creditors Ã¢â¬â including suppliers, banks and holders of debt instruments (Atkinson et al, 2003). This however does not imply by any means that financial accounting information is not used for internal purposes; it is in fact, crucial. The only difference is that it is not necessarily appropriate to apply it in the same format as it is for external purposes; although, it does derive from the same integrated account ing system. While financial accounting information conforms to standards and guidelines that have been instituted by standard setting bodies such as the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), management accounting does not conform to any particular standard since it is used for internal purposes only. Management accounting deals with both financial and non-financial information. Traditional Management Accounting versus Strategic Management Accounting In his seminal work entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic Management AccountingÃ¢â¬ (SMA) Simmonds (1981) defined SMA as Ã¢â¬Å"the provision and analysis of management accounting data about a business and its competitors, for use in developing and monitoring business strategy.Ã¢â¬ Bromwich (1990, p.28) defines it as: