Monday, September 30, 2019
Financial markets started to use the Ã¢â¬Å"Value at RiskÃ¢â¬ extensively since 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. But the measures of Value at Risk (VaR) were active in different names since as early as 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s (Holton 2003). It is the measurement of the worst expected loss at a given confidence level under normal market conditions over a specific time interval. It can also be expressed as the lowest confidence level of the potential losses that can occur within a given portfolio during a specified time period. Value at Risk only presents the worst-case scenario (Harper n. d. ).The two major parameters to be chosen for risk measurement are the time period and the confidence level. The time period can vary from a few hours to a few years. For example it can be stated that when a portfolio manager has a daily VaR at $1 million at 1%, it means that there is only 1 chance in 100 to incur a daily loss of more than $1 million under normal market conditions. The commonly used methods to estimate Valu e at Risk are: Variance Ã¢â¬â Covariance Method, Historical Performance and Monte Carlo Simulation (Benninga & Wiener 1998). Variance Ã¢â¬â Covariance Method:This model was made popular by J. P. Morgan in early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. This approach is based on the assumption that the underlying market factors have a multivariate normal distribution. This assumption helps in determining the distribution of mark-to-market portfolio profits and losses. After finding the distribution of possible portfolio profits and losses, the standard mathematical properties of Normal distribution can be used to determine the loss that will be equaled or exceeded x percent of the time which is called Value at Risk (Linsmeier & Pearson 1996).The following example can be taken to discuss the theory. A U. S. company entered a FX forward contract in the past. The difference between current date and date of delivery is 91 days. The contract requires the company to deliver $15 million in 91 days and in exchan ge it will receive Ã £10 million. The facts taken into consideration are the spot exchange rate expressed in dollars per pound (S), 3 month pound interest rate (rGBP) and 3 month dollar interest rate (rUSD). The current mark to market values in dollars is calculated based on the following formula:USD mark to market value= S x GBP 10million Ã¢â¬â USD 15 million 1+ rGBP (91/360) 1+ rUSD (91/360) Here the holding period is one day and the probability is 5%. The distribution of possible profit and loss on this portfolio has the mean of zero as the expected change in portfolio value over a short holding period is almost always close to zero. A standard property of the Normal distribution is that if a probability of 5% is used in determination of the Value at Risk then it will be equal to 1. 65 times the standard deviation of changes in the portfolio value.Standard deviation is the measure of the spread or dispersion of the distribution and computing the value of the standard deviatio n of changes in the portfolio value is the main factor in this method (Linsmeier & Pearson 1996). Value at Risk = 1. 65 x standard deviation of change in portfolio value The first step in measurement of VaR through this method is to determine the basic market factors and standardized market positions through Ã¢â¬Å"Risk MappingÃ¢â¬ . In this case the basic market factors are spot exchange rate and 3-month dollar and pound interest rates.The associated standardized positions are spot pounds, dollar dominated 3 month zero coupon bond and a 3 month zero-coupon bond exposed only to changes in the pound interest rate. The next step is to estimate the parameters of distribution assuming that the percentage changes in the basic market factors have a multivariate Normal distribution with means of zero and thus capturing the variability of market factors by standard deviation and co-movement by the correlation coefficients.The third step is to compute standard deviations and correlations o f the changes in the values of standardized positions using the covariance matrix of changes in the basic market factors. The final step is to calculate the value of variance and standard deviation of the portfolio using standard mathematical results about the distributions of sums of Normal random variables. Standard deviation is the square root of variance. In our case its value is $ 52500 approximately. Now as the probability was taken as 5%, the formula comes to Value at Risk = 1. 65 x standard deviation of change in portfolio value = 1. 65 x $ 52,500 = $ 86,625The benefit of this model is that it uses compact and maintainable data set often available from market and third parties and calculation is quite speedy using algebraic formulae. The drawback of this method is that it assumes the change of the portfolio value to be linearly dependent on all the changes in the values of assets and also that the asset returns normal distributed (Jorion 2006). Historical Performance: Histor ical Performance method is the simplest and most transparent method that takes into account relatively lesser number of assumptions about the statistical distribution of underlying market factors (Linsmeier & Pearson 1996).The method works by using historical changes in market rates and prices to estimate potential future loss or profit with the portfolio and thereby calculating the Value at Risk. This can be illustrated based on the above example. Here we assume the holding period as 1 day, probability of 5% and computation to be based on 100 preceding business days from the current date. The current day will be the 100th day. The method involves five steps. The first step is to identify the basic market factors and to determine the formula to express mark to market value.In our case the basic market factors are 3 month dollar interest rate, 3 month pound interest rate and spot exchange rate. The formula for mark to market value is derived as USD mark to market value= S x GBP 10mil lion Ã¢â¬â USD 15 million 1+ rGBP (91/360) 1+ rUSD (91/360) Next the values of the identified basic market factors for previous 100 days are to be obtained. Daily change in these rates will be able to set the base for constructions of hypothetical values of market factors useful in the calculation of hypothetical profit and loss.The daily Value at Risk number is a measure of the portfolio loss caused by such changes over a one day holding period. The next and most important step is to subject the current portfolio to the changes experienced in the previous 100 days to calculate daily hypothetical profits and losses. In this step 100 sets of hypothetical values for market factors are calculated based on daily historical percentage changes in the market factors combined with current market factors. These hypothetical values are then used to compute 100 hypothetical mark to market portfolio values.Subtraction of current day mark to market portfolio value from each of the 100 hypothe tical values gives 100 hypothetical daily profits and losses. Ordering mark to market profits and losses from the largest profit to the largest lost is the next step. Finally the loss, which equals or exceeds 5% of the time is selected. In the present example of 100 days calculation the fifth worst loss will be the value at risk. This method relies completely on the historical data. Thus it may not be able to predict most accurately if the period chosen is not a typical one and is posing any special market condition (Jorion 2006).Monte Carlo Simulation: This method is quite similar to the Historical Performance Method. The major difference is that this method uses statistical distribution to capture the possible changes in the market factors instead of observing historical changes in market factors to calculate hypothetical profit and loss. The method involves five steps to estimate Value at Risk. The same example of single forward contract can be considered in this respect. The fir st step here is to identify the basic market factors and to determine the formula to express mark to market value similar to the Historical Performance Method.The next step is to assume a specific distribution for changes in the basic market factors and to estimate the parameters of that distribution. For the present example the percentage change in the basic market factors having multivariate Normal distribution is assumed and estimates of standard deviation and correlates are used as in this case the parameters like means, standard deviations and correlations can be interpreted naturally and their estimation is easier. However, it can be said that Monte Carlo Simulation allows risk managers to choose the distribution according to their requirements.But this flexibility also runs a risk of a bad choice that may not be suitable for the particular case (Jorion, 2006). Pseudo-random generator is used in the following step to generate more than 1000 or sometimes 10000 hypothetical valu es of changes in market factors. These are then used to calculate hypothetical mark to market portfolio values. Actual mark to market portfolio value on the current date is subtracted from each of the hypothetical values to get the hypothetical daily profits and losses.The following step is to order the mark to market profits and losses from the largest profit to the largest loss and the Value at Risk is selected as the loss which equals or exceeds 5% of time. While comparing the different aspects of these three methods it can be said that Historical Performance is the simplest method for estimating Value at Risk. It is suitable for estimation for any kind of options of the portfolio. It is easy to compute and implement and can be explained without much effort.The drawbacks of the method are that it can be misleading if the data used is not typical and represents a specific condition quite similar to Monte Carlo Simulation and Variance-Covariance methods. It is too much dependent on historical data. It is not possible to analyze alternative assumptions through this method. Monte Carlo Simulation and Variance-Covariance methods on the other hand can easily analyze alternative assumptions. Variance-Covariance method though can not examine distribution of market factors other than normal. Both of these methods are easy to implement but tougher to explain.Variance-Covariance method is easy in computation but can not capture the risks of portfolio with options when the holding period is long. Monte Carlo Simulation on the other hand is not easy to compute but it can surely capture the risks regardless of any options (Linsmeier & Pearson 1996). Thus it can be said that all of the three methods have their own benefits and drawbacks and it is completely at the discretion of the risk manager to choose a method appropriate to the portfolio based on the factors to be considered and the holding time.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Cannibalization Assignment Your choice of line extension (Allround +) which of the line extensions do you believe will have the least degree of cannibalization and why? We chose the 12-hour multi-symptom capsule because it will have the least amount of cannibalization because our product right now only works for 4 hours. We will reach a new market of customers and it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt our market with our Allround product. The capsules are also different because they are easier to carry around so that will reach different customers.The degree to which you believe the sales of your choice of line extension will come from your current core product (Allround). We believe that our new product, Allround +, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t take much of the sales revenue from our current product Allround. The products tend to customers in different markets and customers looking for different things in their OTC medicines. We do, however, believe that Allround will help Allround + get sales because of how well k nown the Allround brand is and how respectable our company is.What options do you have to minimize the degree of cannibalization of the line extension? We could try to position them on the shelf in different areas so that customers donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to choose between the two products. We could position the new Allround + next to the Extra brand because then it would be in competition with that brand instead of competition with our Allround. This would also be good because in our marketing plan we discussed that our biggest competitor is Ethik so that would go in line with competing with them.We could also market to different kinds of customers. With the Allround + product, we could market to more active people that are out all day that need the 12 hours of help and with Allround we could just market to parents of children who are at home all day where it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if you took several doses a day. Another option would be to make the Allround + product a little more expens ive because it lasts so much longer and is more efficient. This would cause there to be two different types of customers who are buying the different products.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Like always, this book couldn't have been written without the help and support of my friends and family. In particular, I need to thank my IM Counseling Team: Caitlin, David, Jay, Jackie, and Kat. You guys logged more late-night online hours than I can even begin to count. I couldn't have gotten through this book and the rest of this year's craziness without you. Thanks also to my agent, Jim McCarthy, who has moved heaven, earth, and deadlines to help me finish what I need to. I'm glad you've got my back. And finally, many thanks to Jessica Rothenberg and Ben Schrank at Razorbill for their continued support and hard work. For Kat Richardson, who is very wise. PROLOGUE THINGS DIE. BUT THEY DON'T always stay dead. Believe me, I know. There's a race of vampires on this earth who are literally the walking dead. They're called Strigoi, and if you're not already having nightmares about them, you should be. They're strong, they're fast, and they kill without mercy or hesitation. They're immortal, toowhich kind of makes them a bitch to destroy. There are only three ways to do it: a silver stake through the heart, decapitation, and setting them on fire. None of those is easy to pull off, but it's better than having no options at all. There are also good vampires walking the world. They're called Moroi. They're alive, and they possess the incredibly cool power to wield magic in each of the four elements earth, air, water, and fire. (Well, most Moroi can do thisbut I'll explain more about the exceptions later). They don't really use the magic for much anymore, which is kind of sad. It'd be a great weapon, but the Moroi strongly believe magic should only be used peacefully. It's one of the biggest rules in their society. Moroi are also usually tall and slim, and they can't handle a lot of sunlight. But they do have superhuman senses that make up for it: sight, smell, and hearing. Both kinds of vampires need blood. That's what makes them vampires, I guess. Moroi don't kill to take it, however. Instead, they keep humans around who willingly donate small amounts. They volunteer because vampire bites contain endorphins that feel really, really good and can become addictive. I know this from personal experience. These humans are called feeders and are essentially vampire-bite junkies. Still, keeping feeders around is better than the way the Strigoi do things, because, as you might expect, they kill for their blood. I think they like it. If a Moroi kills a victim while drinking, he or she will turn into a Strigoi. Some Moroi do this by choice, giving up their magic and their morals for immortality. Strigoi can also be created by force. If a Strigoi drinks blood from a victim and then makes that person drink Strigoi blood in return, wellÃ¢â¬ ¦you get a new Strigoi. This can happen to anyone: Moroi, human, or Ã¢â¬ ¦ dhampir. Dhampir. That's what I am. Dhampirs are half-human, half-Moroi. I like to think we got the best traits of both races. I'm strong and sturdy, like humans are. I can also go out in the sun as much as I want. But, like the Moroi, I have really good senses and fast reflexes. The result is that dhampirs make the ultimate bodyguardswhich is what most of us are. We're called guardians. I've spent my entire life training to protect Moroi from Strigoi. I have a whole set of special classes and practices I take at St. Vladimir's Academy, a private school for Moroi and dhampirs. I know how to use all sorts of weapons and can land some pretty mean kicks. I've beaten up guys twice my sizeboth in and out of class. And really, guys are pretty much the only ones I beat up, since there are very few girls in any of my classes. Because while dhampirs inherit all sorts of great traits, there's one thing we didn't get. Dhampirs can't have children with other dhampirs. Don't ask me why. It's not like I'm a geneticist or anything. Humans and Moroi getting together will always make more dhampirs; that's where we came from in the first place. But that doesn't happen so much anymore; Moroi tend to stay away from humans. Through another weird genetic fluke, however, Moroi and dhampirs mixing will create dhampir children. I know, I know: it's crazy. You'd think you'd get a baby that's three-quarters vampire, right? Nope. Half human, half Moroi. Most of these dhampirs are born from Moroi men and dhampir women getting together. Moroi women stick to having Moroi babies. What this usually means is that Moroi men have flings with dhampir women and then take off. This leaves a lot of single dhampir mothers, and that's why not as many of them become guardians. They'd rather focus on raising their children. As a result, only the guys and a handful of girls are left to become guardians. But those who choose to protect Moroi are serious about their jobs. Dhampirs need Moroi to keep having kids. We have to protect them. Plus, it's justÃ¢â¬ ¦well, it's the honorable thing to do. Strigoi are evil and unnatural. It isn't right for them to prey on the innocent. Dhampirs who train to be guardians have this drilled into them from the time they can walk. Strigoi are evil. Moroi must be protected. Guardians believe this. I believe this. And there's one Moroi I want to protect more than anyone in the world: my best friend, Lissa. She's a Moroi princess. The Moroi have twelve royal families, and she's the only one left in hersthe Dragomirs. But there's something else that makes Lissa special, aside from her being my best friend. Remember when I said every Moroi wields one of the four elements? Well, it turns out Lissa wields one no one even knew existed until recently: spirit. For years, we thought she just wasn't going to develop her magical abilities. Then strange things started happening around her. For example, all vampires have an ability called compulsion that lets them force their will on others. Strigoi have it really strongly. It's weaker in Moroi, and it's also forbidden. Lissa, however, has it almost as much as a Strigoi. She can bat her eyelashes, and people will do what she wants. But that's not even the coolest thing she can do. I said earlier that dead things don't always stay dead. Well, I'm one of them. Don't worryI'm not like the Strigoi. But I did die once. (I don't recommend it.) It happened when the car I was riding in slid off the road. The accident killed me, Lissa's parents, and her brother. Yet, somewhere in the chaoswithout even realizing itLissa used spirit to bring me back. We didn't know about this for a long time. In fact, we didn't even know spirit existed at all. Unfortunately, it turned out that one person did know about spirit before we did. Victor Dashkov, a dying Moroi prince, found out about Lissa's powers and decided he wanted to lock her up and make her his own personal healerfor the rest of her life. When I realized someone was stalking her, I decided to take matters into my own hands. I broke us out of school to run off and live among humans. It was funbut also kind of nerve-wrackingto always be on the run. We got away with this for two years until the authorities at St. Vladimir's hunted us down and dragged us back a few months ago. That was when Victor made his real move, kidnapping her and torturing her until she gave into his demands. In the process, he took some pretty extreme measureslike zapping me and Dimitri, my mentor, with a lust spell. (I'll get to him later). Victor also exploited the way spirit was starting to make Lissa mentally unstable. But even that wasn't as bad as what he did to his own daughter Natalie. He went so far as to encourage her to turn into a Strigoi to help cover his escape. She ended up getting staked. Even when captured after the fact, Victor didn't seem to display too much guilt over what he'd asked her to do. Makes me think I wasn't missing out on growing up without a father. Still, I now have to protect Lissa from Strigoi and Moroi. Only a few officials know about what she can do, but I'm sure there are other Victors out there who would want to use her. Fortunately, I have an extra weapon to help me guard her. Somewhere during my healing in the car accident, spirit forged a psychic bond between her and me. I can see and feel what she experiences. (It only works one way, though. She can't Ã¢â¬Å"feelÃ¢â¬ me.) The bond helps me keep an eye on her and know when she's in trouble, although sometimes, it's weird having another person inside your head. We're pretty sure there are lots of other things spirit can do, but we don't know what they are yet. In the meantime, I'm trying to be the best guardian I can be. Running away put me behind in my training, so I have to take extra classes to make up for lost time. There's nothing in the world I want more than to keep Lissa safe. Unfortunately, I've got two things that complicate my training now and then. One is that I sometimes act before I think. I'm getting better at avoiding this, but when something sets me off, I tend to punch first and then find out who I actually hit later. When it comes to those I care about being in dangerÃ¢â¬ ¦well, rules seem optional. The other problem in my life is Dimitri. He's the one who killed Natalie, and he's a total badass. He's also pretty good-looking. Okaymore than good-looking. He's hotlike, the kind of hot that makes you stop walking on the street and get hit by traffic. But, like I said, he's my instructor. And he's twenty-four. Both of those are reasons why I shouldn't have fallen for him. But, honestly, the most important reason is that he and I will be Lissa's guardians when she graduates. If he and I are checking each other out, then that means we aren't looking out for her. I haven't had much luck in getting over him, and I'm pretty sure he still feels the same about me. Part of what makes it so difficult is that he and I got pretty hot and heavy when we got hit with the lust spell. Victor had wanted to distract us while he kidnapped Lissa, and it had worked. I'd been ready to give up my virginity, and Dimitri had been ready to take it. At the last minute, we broke the spell, but those memories are always with me and make it kind of hard to focus on combat moves sometimes. By the way, my name's Rose Hathaway. I'm seventeen years old, training to protect and kill vampires, in love with a completely unsuitable guy, and have a best friend whose weird magic could drive her crazy. Hey, no one said high school was easy.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Book summary - Essay Example Mercator projections typically hanged on pentagon offices and classroom walls usually place the US in the middle where it is separated from Europe to its East by the big Atlantic Ocean and from Asia by to its West by the Pacific Ocean. Our preference for the perspective reflects a particular national egocentrism and has for a bigger part of the past two centuries made a recommendable deal of a strategic sense (Kaplan, 154). Through a big part of the 19th century, oceanic moats made possible the era of free security as a historian by the name C. Van Woodward called it. United States then projected much of its power primarily towards East Asia and Europe as it stepped on the World stage and grew stronger. In the 20th century, America would wage wars, cold and hot, aiming to protect vital regions against the dominion of hostile forces. Their earlier purposes, notwithstanding, the ancient maps are no longer meaningful having outlived their usefulness. After the cold war had come to an end, with much intensity and speed since 9/11, focus shifted towards South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and towards the western Pacific waters. Robert D. Kaplan in monsoon argues that fresh ways of viewing the World are needed. This is needed mostly in seeing those parts that are integral elements despite being split by old projections (Kaplan, 165). KaplanÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was providing his fellow countrymen with a similar map centered the Greater Indian Ocean, the region that stretched eastward right from the Horn of Africa going past the Arabian Peninsula, Iranian plateau as well as the Indian subcontinent going all the way to Indonesian archipelago and even beyond. He was glad that the monsoon winds shifted direction regularly at six month intervals, making connecting of the far-flung shores by waters to be readily navigable even when there were primitive sailing vessels. The greater Indian Ocean was initially linked by Muslim merchants, later Portugal
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections - Essay Example Christians are called upon to embrace the need of celebrating the achievements which have been brought through modernity by securing such achievements in grounding them to become more coherent and comprehensive through the understanding of human rationality. The lecture is not only brilliant and breathtaking but also very intelligible to some of the ordinary minds. This all not only addresses the heart of modernism but also to the Islamic societies and communities. Not acting in accordance with reason is deemed contrary to the nature of God and this is central to the Christianity as emphasized by Benedict XVI. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s transcendence is not precluded by the openness of some of the divine concepts to examination by form of reason as illustrated by the early Christian rapprochement between the Greek inquiry and biblical faith. The expedition for reason over against myth is in existence as a dynamic in the two traditions as well as being accompanied by the various forms of enlightenment in each. During the late middle ages, the church brought about and reaffirmed the real analogy which existed between man and God. This was contrary to some of the arguments that it is only reason which can be taken as a reliable way of knowing GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will, albeit that the Unlikeness of God is infinitely greater than his likeness. The de-hellenization of Christianity is continually highlighted by Benedict all through the modern age by the use of a long process using three stages. The first stage occurs in the reformation with the emphasis on sola scriptura which is followed by the liberal theology which occurs in the 19th century having its basis on the modern self-limitation of reason as Kant expresses and radicalized by the influence and impact of natural sciences. Benedict delves into the irony that even though the sciences explain the rational structure of matter, this total dependence on the prestige brought about by the scientific
Global Poverty - Essay Example The imbalanced use of earth resources in an unsustainable manner is another major threat for the future generationsÃ¢â¬â¢ survival. It is therefore important to analysis these issues in-depth and provide unique solutions. This paper discusses some of the cause and recommends the solutions to fight global poverty. (# of words = 142) 5. According to UNICEF, 30,000 children die each day due to poverty. And they Ã¢â¬Å"die quietly in some of the poorest villages on earth, far removed from the scrutiny and the conscience of the world. Being meek and weak in life makes these dying multitudes even more invisible in death.Ã¢â¬ That is about 210,000 children each week or just under 11 million children under five years of age, each year (Shah, 2005). 6. Ã¢â¬Å"Today, across the world, 1.3 billion people live on less than one dollar a day; 3 billion live on under two dollars a day; 1.3 billion have no access to clean water; 3 billion have no access to sanitation; 2 billion have no access to electricity.Ã¢â¬ (Shah, 2005) 7. 1 billion children live in poverty (1 in 2 children in the world). 640 million live without adequate shelter, 400 million have no access to safe water, and 270 million have no access to health services. 10.6 million died in 2003 before they reached the age of 5 (Shah, 2005). 3. Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income. The term typically refers to inequality among individuals and groups within a society, but can also refer to inequality among nations. 4. Hunger: The term is commonly used more broadly to refer to cases of widespread malnutrition or deprivation among populations, usually due to poverty, political conflicts or instability, or adverse agricultural conditions (famine). 5. Malnutrition: It is a general term for the medical condition in a person caused by an unbalanced dietÃ¢â¬âeither too little or too much food, or a diet missing one or more important nutrients (Wikipedia,
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Human Resource Management - Essay Example Many companies do not have enough resources to invest in the recruitment process. As a matter of fact, for a company to attract the most suitable candidates they need to advertise as much as possible and the most cost effective and efficient way is that of web based recruitment. It is very important to communicate properly and have well written descriptions. To attract the potential candidates it is significant to have a well written description of the position which is neither too long nor too short. It should properly communicate all the important information. Introduction A process of attracting the most suitable candidates and making them apply for that particular job in a company or organization is known as recruitment. It is a process and a way to hire the right type of candidates for the right job. Recruitment is becoming a very critical and significant component of the human resource structure (Alvesson, 2010). It is highly significant to hire people who have more qualities a nd are more talented. For this a very fine and properly tuned up recruitment process is required. This is to ensure that the hired people are the most talented ones and are the best fit for the job. In order to measure the effectiveness of the recruitment process the organization needs to give importance to the feedback from internal customers, its employees and from the external customers. There are several methods of recruitment process. The two broad headings for the recruitment method are that of internal recruitment and external recruitment (Becker, 2007). Job advertisement, recruitment and employment agencies, internal bulletins and the recommendations personally, job centers of government and the new social media are the few most commonly used methods for recruitment. Job advertisement is the most widely used recruitment method. In this method the organization critically and carefully sought out the places it needs to advertise in. A typical job advertisement includes all the important information like job title, the location, description, compensation package and instructions to apply for the job (Thompson & Luthans, 1990). Organizations at times use the agencies like recruitment agencies and employment agencies to attract the most suitable candidates and hire them. The agencies help the organization in the screening of the resumes in the initial phase, the assessment of qualifications and their test, and also the reference checks. Personal recommendations and internal bulletin is also a method of recruitment (Sheridan, 2002). This is done by the organizations to alert the staff for the available positions. The organizations use this method to put up an incentive for the ones who are in search of advancement and also to seek the employee referrals. This method can be an effective one as the employees are already associated with the company and helps in saving the time and money of the company. Another method is job centers of government that usually ad vertise the job for the development of employees in an effort to serve the citizens in search of employment. The new and the latest way of recruitment is that of social media. This is the fastest and the most fruitful resource for recruitment these days. It helps the professionals connect all round the globe. This method is very efficient in attracting the maximum number of candidates in the shortest possible time (Wanous
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Linguistics - English relative clauses in dialects of the GB isles - Essay Example Herrmann builds her theory will be examined. In part two, I will examine the basic premise upon which Mr. Sag builds his theories. Part three will examine Ms. Herrmanns theory of grammatical construction and part four will examine the commonalities that the two theories have, by paying special attention to the concept of pied-piping. To begin, one must examine the basic premise upon which Ms. Herrmann built her grammatical constructs. In the Ã¢â¬Å"Relative Clauses in Dialects of English,Ã¢â¬ the author describes an extensive study of the British Isles. She divided the Isles into six broad sections - Central Midland, Central north, Central Southwest, East Anglia, Northern Ireland and Scotland. She concentrated on the prototypical relative clauses, or adnominal clauses, and she compared these clauses across the different dialects of the sections listed above, with an eye towards identifying the features that have become commonplace across different dialects, and also identified how the commonalities and differences across different dialects identified certain dialects as more closely related to Standard English than other dialects. Her study also can identify where different dialects intersect, which is known as dialectical levelling. (Herrmann 22). In the process, she also identified broad characteristics of the various dialects she studied. Central southwest, Central North and Northern Ireland have broad dialectical speech, ie, the speakers in these regions tend to speak in one dialect, while the speakers in East Anglia, Central Midland and Scotland have more heterogenous speech. (Herrmann 24). Central Southwest and Northern Ireland are almost entirely broad speakers. Broad speakers tend towards more non-standard features, which is gradually transforming into traditional features, and these are influencing Standard English as a whole. (Herrmann 22). The basic findings of the study were that the relative particles (zero, that, what
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Impact of Women Teachers on Girls Education - Essay Example The cause and effect theory is given significance by the writer as women teachers in the schools will help in projecting a safe and secure environment for the girls in the schools. The high quality of education and mutual respect amid the genders will be improved and nurtured from the childhood. In accordance with the data from UNESCO, it is observed that countries with 20% women teachers have less number of girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ education (Kirk, 2008). The writer argues that increase in the women teachers will give rise to better policies and security for women from the society. The link amid women teachers and girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ education is strong due to the presence of the conservative society where the certain families might not want their girls to be taught by men. With the increase in the retention rate, the female perspective will be valued and advocated, increasing the opportunity and safety of women through education. The article explores the cause and effect theory of appointing women teachers which might lead to the increase in female education in schools. The gender equality concept will be majorly followed by the schools with the increase in the women teachers. The research conducted in this article is qualitative in nature and also ethnographic as the cultural values are also taken into consideration when evaluating the impact of girlÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Various literature reviews and cultural dimensions were taken into consideration while exploring girlÃ¢â¬â¢s education and the position of women in the society in a number of Asian and African countries. The main issue faced by the article is that it is based on the individual ability of the researchers as it is qualitative in nature. The methods used can at times be biased as they depend on the discretion of the researchers.Ã
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Poetry and Wright Essay The poetry of Judith Wright conveys a strong sense of ? Australian Identity. This is evident though Wrights strong connection to the sea, using descriptions and personifications of the sea. Wrights ? Australian Identity is firmly established through poetry with her use of ideas that have become synonymous with the Australian stereotype: what people recognise as being uniquely ? Australian. This includes the description of the stereotypical Australian beach scene and the attitudes shown by the surfer and even the surf in the poem: characteristics recognised as ?Ã typically Australian. These features of her poetry have established Wright as a truly ? Australian poet. The surf, grey-wolf sea sitting on the whitened pebbles and shells are images that are recognised as Australian and part of the Australian identity. The surfer too is instantly recognisable as typical Aussie character. He is described as brown and he has muscle ? he is the stereotype of the bronzed, muscular surfer. The use of these ideas that have become typically Australian show Judith Wright as an Australian poet which in turn reflects the Australian identity. Judith Wright has a strong connection to the Australian beach, and the ideas she conveys through her poetry are very much steeped in nature. This link to the Australian sea immediately distinguishes Wright as an Australian poet. The Australian connection to the sea and surf is reflected in the repetition of muscle to describe both the surfer and the wave expresses the surfers connection to the wave and to nature. This connection is further emphasised by the personification of the wave through long muscle of water. The bond of both the surfer and Wright to the sea defines Wright as Australian and reflects Australians strong links to the sea. ?Australian traits are not shown only by Wright herself, but by characters in her poems. In The Surfer, Wright uses assonance (those and foam) to describe the wave. This has the effect of creating a long and lazy piece of sound imagery for the reader. The laconic nature of the wave is the same as the typical Australian ? laid back spirit giving Wrights poetry an Australian flavour and such contribute greatly to Wrights recognition as being an Australian poet.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Medical ethics | An analysis Introduction: Medical ethics became one of the most important teaching modules in most of the medical schools especially in the last three decades particularly in US7 . Ethics defined as the study of morality, careful and systematic reflection on and analysis of moral decision and behavior4. Hence the medical ethics is the study of ethics related to medical practice. There are four primary principals for medical ethics where all basic medical teaching teaches to medical students. These are non-malfeasance, beneficence, justice and autonomy with sub sectional principals like truth telling and confidentiality.12 Now a days doctors are facing more ethical questions and dilemmas in day to day clinical practice, this can be partlyÃ attributed to the increase in the knowledge of patients about their health from the media and internet . Studies showed that there is a strong relation between resolving ethical issues and medical errors especially in the area of informed consent and end of life care8. In addition, the court compensation for medico legal cases opened the door for public to find faults for doctors or the health systems to earn some wealth from it! All these made the teaching of how to handle an ethical issue and resolve it very essential to produce a competent skillful physician. Medical schools adopted different styles and methods for teaching medical ethics, it included didactic lecturing, small group seminars, case based discussion and simulated patient but without uniformity or consensus as to method or content7. This could be as a result of lack of agreement about what shall we teach in medical ethics7. At sultan Qaboose University, medical students have a one interdisciplinaryÃ Ã activity (IDA) week for medical ethics during their mid of fifth year. During this week speakers from different medical and surgical specialties present to the students a common ethical issues encounter. This week is also attended by Islamic scholar (Professor Albar) to comment on Islamic perspective in selective cases like abortion and end of life care . As co-organizer of the course I introduced the presentation of clinical cases by the student to the entire group. I asked each subgroup of the students to select a case where there is an ethical issue and reflect on what was done and how can we improve it. I found the reflect practice theory is very suitable for teaching of medical ethics because it stimulates the thinking and give the students the opportunity to analyze the ethical dilemma and how to resolve it. The Theory: The theory of reflective practice is attributed primarily to Donald SchÃ ¶n3, 5. In life and based on our knowledge and experience we take decision easily to events that we are expecting and used to experience. However when surprise or unexpected event take place, based on SchÃ ¶n theory, people develop two types of reflection to that event. The first one is Reflection in action and it occurs immediately.It is the ability to learn and develop continually by creatively applying current and past experiences and reasoning to unfamiliar events while they are occurring5. The second, reflection on action, occurs later. It is a process of thinking back on what happened in a past situation, what may have contributed to the unexpected event, whether the actions taken were appropriate, and how this situation may affect future practice 5. The reflection in action can be considered as an emergency decision in which the physician should take the risk of being mistaken, however, this type of d ecision should be appreciated by people in authority if later turned to be not the perfect way of handling it and that is because it was taken based on the inputs of that situation and surrounding circumstances unless it is clearly odd approach. In contrast, the reflection on action comes later when the physician finished all duties and started re-calling cases seen and decisions taken. At this point s/he will start to bring other options and thoughts that could serve the situation better than the ones taken. This extremely important because it enables us to spend time exploring why we acted as we did, what was happening in a group and so on13. In addition if this type of reflection done in group (Peer) will lead to even more reasonable and appropriate reaction to the surprise14. Since this paper discusses the teaching of medical ethics, the following example will illustrate this approach. A 32 years old pregnant lady in her 3rd trimester involved in car accident and sustained severe head injury , brought to the casualty and treating physician confirmed her death but noticed that the baby still kicking !. Limited experience and lack of awareness about the regulation of such the situation made it a surprise for the physician. He used his basic knowledge of saving life and decided to perform postmortem caesarian section (PMCS) and a second surprise came when the husband arrived to refused PMCS!! . Reflection on action for such case is extremely crucial to reach to an approach which is ethical, legal and satisfy the patient. It is usually reached when the case is presented to the peer and each one is discussing different perspective of the case. In the previous example the reflection on action could be asking a senior physician on duty be a good option for the c ase. Application: At college of medicine in sultan Qaboose University, medical students are divided in group each composed of about 10 to 15 students (Boys and Girls). Each group will be asked to prepare a clinical case seen in practice where there was an ethical issue (e.g. breaching confidentiality) and one or two of the group members will present the case to whole group during the medical ethics week forum. Students will be informed in advance about the objectives and strategies of this approach and each group will linked to a facilitator who is usually senior medical/paramedical faculty with experience of making difficult medical decisions6. The group will keep in touch with facilitator either in person or online (e.g. email) to show the contents, structure and suitability of the case for presentation and discussion. The facilitator will guide the students in selecting the case and how to formulate the ethical issue and its resolution and use steps in table-1 adopted from Catherine Myser.9, 11 S/he will also teach them some basic ethical principal like doctors should refrain from being judgmental, patronizing or minipulative2. S/he will direct them to the appropriate resources and personals whenever required. In Oman, many decisions of ethical dilemma are driven by Islamic teaching and this is very prevalent in medical field, hence students will be directed to Islamic scholars who have some medical background in order to help them understanding Islamic teaching in medical field. During the medical ethics IDA week forum, each group will present their case to the entire group in the presence of the facilitators. The presentation will be briefing about the case, the ethical issue, what was done, and how can we do better? More time will be given for discussion and comments by other students who are not member of the presenting group. The discussion will be regulated and guided by the facilitator supervising the presenting group. At the end of discussion the facilitator will re solve any argument and give the final comment summarizing the ethical issue and the best way to deal with it. Discussion: Medical schools around the world used different models in teaching medical ethics; the variation in selection of teaching model could rise from the availability of resources, number of students and curriculum design. For example, both university of Pennsylvania and university of Washington used small group facilitation and peer interaction while uniformed services university introduced a novel model called SCOOP which stand for Students Clinical Observation Of Preceptors11 . A SCOOP reverses the process of evaluation by giving the students evaluation form and ask them to evaluate the teachers. This gives them the opportunity to identify the teaching skills and methods reflect on them and hence acquire the appropriate one and avoid the other one. Shaheen and his group wrote in commentary about time to unified approach to medical ethics where he advocated for unified framework of ethics education justifying that it willÃ ensures measurable and accountable basis for the complex o f far-reaching ethical issues present in the medical field7 . However, it is difficult and impractical to unify the contents and materials of medical ethics for different parts of the world where there is a diversity of culture, believe and traditional values. That is because most of the ethical decisions are driven by these factors. For example, In Oman (and other Muslims countries) it is forbidden to drink any amount of alcohol as per the Islamic teaching, hence it is unethical to advice patient to drink alcohol as part of heart protection advice while the same advice can be carried out normally in non-Muslim country. However, I support the statement of Rameshkumar in his paper Ethics in medical curriculum when he said The structure of ethics education has to be closely monitored and the curriculum goals have to be well defined.10 The strength of this proposal is that there is national and international move toward teaching of medical ethics to both pre and post graduates students. Most of the senior physicians who did not have training in medical ethics realized that it made a gap in their qualification and they urge the new generation in order not to miss the chance. In Oman the support of the current and previous deans of college of medicine at sultan Qaboose University along with other many medical faculties will make this proposal overcome any obstacles. In addition, there interest of health care providers from different medical disciplines in any activities in medical ethics (workshop, seminars and lectures) will prepare the ground and the environment for the proposal to grow up at the university. This interest always clears during our annual medical ethics week where we get several requests from different institutes and departments asking for registration to the event although the week primarily designe d for medical students. The challenges that this proposal might face is the limited resources that include trained personals and teaching material. The later is easier to overcome since it merely financial and the college is ready to provide any recommended teaching material as long as there is a clear vision and mission of its utilization. In term of training personals, there are already two faculties sent abroad for master in bioethics. In addition, there are several faculties who has special interest in teaching of ethics, all these will make the overcome of human resources obstacles more feasible.Ã Ã Recommendation: In order to implement this theory in teaching medical ethics to medical students I recommend the college to consider the following points: Identify and train people interested in teaching of medical ethics. The training should be for high degree ( Master , PhD ) and it is preferred to be in a center where culture and value of people are close to Oman. Provide teaching resources and materials to students. It should include textbooks, journals, video etc. Instruct the clinicians to integrate teaching of issues related to medical ethics in their daily patient care. Include assessment of medical ethics in the standard summative and formative methods of assessment in the college. Regular evaluation and audit of the program in order be developed farther .
Friday, September 20, 2019
Prescriptive And Descriptive Grammar A pedagogical grammar refers to the modified approach that is now adopted in linguistics to facilitate the process of teaching an extra language. In broader spectrum it can be defines as the grammar that exists to help foreign language learners. Pedagogical grammar can be categorized into two distinct but interconnected theory areas. First of which is concerned with descriptive models can be integrated with pedagogical reference along with teaching materials that makes the process of learning easy and simple for the learner. Secondly premises about second-language achievement form the other category of pedagogical grammar. It provides the fundamentals about class attitudes and tactics. It in general guides students about grammatical concepts which appear to be insightful for a native speaker while extremely complicated for a non-native speaker. An indigenous English speaker needs less attention an instruction in correcting some obvious sentence structure mistakes. For instance he would be easily able to invert the words You do know me to form an appropriate sentence as Do you know me? However for somebody who is learning English as his second language would demand a detailed explanation about making this inversion. This fact becomes more lucid when the persons native language formulates question following a different way. Guiding about this particular area of grammar might appear monotonous and pointless for first-language speakers but it is an essential aspect of pedagogical grammar. ( Ortega, 2008) Pedagogical grammar introduces rules about correcting the language usage in communications. For instance it guides about the language that a doctor uses to check his patients and write his prescriptions. Similarly pedagogical grammar also deals with descriptive grammars teaching the speakers to have a strong grip over the language to make sure they use it frequently even without considering the proper rules before speaking. Summing up pedagogical grammar forms a border between the grounds of prescriptive and descriptive language. Using both approaches is vital to serve the purpose of pedagogical grammar that is to help non-native speakers use the language fluently. In order to make a learner perfectly skilled in his desirable language, it is important to make obey the rules of prescriptive grammar to improve his utterances. On the contrary by means of descriptive language the foreign language learners comprehend the way native speakers make use of the language. However it is necessary the learners make complete sense in his communication when using slangs or some other non-standard learning ways. Lexicogrammar is a term that is often considered unusual in the systemic functional linguistics. Basically it defines the level of linguistic structure wherein expressions or vocabulary, and grammar, or sentence structure come under the same heading. The words and grammatical structure are not considered independent variables at this level. In fact the modern concept is that both of them are mutually dependent that is one has a profound influence on the other. The similar relation between lexis and grammar has been discussed in many linguistic theories and approaches. This entry in particular will focus more on the systemic functional linguistics (SFL) as well as corpus linguistics (CL), because both these hypothetical-procedural frameworks have strong relation with applied linguistics. In both the cases lexicogrammar plays a vital role. For Instance; the Lexicogrammatical learning techniques should be implemented in classrooms on daily basis. This would enable the second language learners achieve the optimum result similar to those individuals who are learning their first language. In case the students are not told about the phrases used commonly in native English, they will definitely get confused when have a conversation with somebody. It is a fact that second language learners would not be able to think of the routine conversational phrases that the native speakers frequently use. Therefore they should be taught about this to make sure they also attain a native like fluency in their language skills. It has also been deliberated that the prescriptive grammar emphasizes more about grammatical errors and cohesiveness. It guides student about the appropriate grammar rules, probable error areas in terms oral and written communication. It includes all the flexible and necessary guidelines about the language. This parti cular type of grammar describes how people converse using correct sentence structure without considering the strict rules now and then. ( Lins, 2007) Provide your position toward the following statement by using theories and research results: L1-L2 differences cause learning difficulties. For example, is it true or do you agree or disagree and why? Evaluating the relationship between mother tongue (L1) and second language (L2) has been one of the most important subjects under discussion in the arena of second language acquisition (SLA) research. I do not comply with the statement that L1-L2 differences results in learning complications because there are also many other factors that affect the learning process directly. A major part of the discussion emphasizes on the transfer phenomena which is typically referred to the incorporation characteristics of L1 into the informative systems of L2 that the learner is trying to construct. During the time frame 1950s-1960, transfer is seen to be one of the main causes of learning difficulties. Following in 1970s L2 acquisition process was denied in all the places. After all this crucial points of transfer debate has been determined which states in spite of the possession of irritating and elusive character, transfer is considered to be the major factor crafting the learners inter-languag e performance. Moreover it is also becoming evident that transfer phenomena are not just limited to learners integration of L1 elements into their L2 production. It is also believed that transfer is caused by similarities and differences between languages. It is not restricted to the impact of L1 and L2 but also encompasses the influence of L2 and L3. (Cook, Long McDonough, 1979). In spite of extensive research done in this arena, there are still a lot of issues left unresolved such as nature of transfer, situations in which it occurs and related psychological processes. For instance effect of L1 on L2 performance is most prominent in the field of phonology wherein foreign accent is possibly the best demonstration of learners mother tongue in L2 speech. However the most research done on these phonological skills of L2 previously revolved around segmented issues. Therefore all the possible pro-sody was disregarded. The relation between the languages is known to very crucial as it determines the nature of second language acquisition. The acquisition of L1 and L2 did not differ then the research would only be about sub-field of language acquisition. It is actually a maxim that defines the features of L2 acquisition as the availability of another language with the presence of the first language in the same mind. Besides the characteristic of L2 community is define d as the supplementary usage of additional languages in association with the first language. Explain the notions of attention and noticing and their roles in L2 learning. Modern researchers state that noticing, which is defined as the level of attention and concentration, is a vital necessity for learning the grammatical forms of L2. This can be distinguished by its features such as a cognitive function called detection, consciousness and awareness. Both these elements are considered to be so essential that no innovative mental representation can be made in their absence. Moreover, according to many researchers and language instructors it is part of human skills and nature that he learns first languages more easily and effortlessly as in this case attention is not required along with awareness. On the contrary people learning second languages do not show such simplicity towards the learning process. They are not able to learn with the aid of detection only. Such difficulties and complications are more evident in learning grammar and cohesiveness of L2. The practical implementations seen in classrooms are generally noticeable. Here teachers and student s endeavor to use obscure cognitive processes that supervise both the processes of learning, attention and grammar learning.( Schmitt, 2010) Schmitt was the first person to conduct an effective research on the psychology associations with Second Language Acquisition (SLA). He claimed that the things that are noticeable are vital for L2 learning. He also hypothesized that noticing is an essential condition for this. Although many researchers considered noticing a vital component for L2 learning still the thoughts and opinions of other scholars differ in sense whether it is obligatory or not. Another factor considered to be important for L2 learning is attention, intentional or spontaneous. This human skill basically refers to his capability of concentrating on one task while paying no attention to the others. Subcategories of attention encompass alertness (eagerness to deal with a challenge), orientation (pathway of attention), detection (cognitive registration of a situation) and inhibition (negligence towards stimuli). The SLA theory states that one cannot learn anything from input unless it has formed the object of atte ntion. It is true that it is necessary for L2 learning to focus on cognitive activities in regards with specific stimuli over time. The issue that is debatable in this arena is whether or not this discernment shall be conscious. Noticing refers to assigning importance to one aspect as compared to others. It is a form of awareness which determines private experience of learner linguistically. It has also been deliberated by many researchers that noticing is important for changing input to intake in case of learning L2. Schmitt (2010) also described the minimum prerequisite of noticing as the attention paid to deal with grammatical components in input. This is done with the accomplishment of reporting threshold level of subjective responsiveness and knowledge about the experience.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Sacrifice in Sir Gawain and the Green KnightÃ Ã Ã There are many different types of heroism that exist among the heroes of past and present. Heroism usually is thought of as battling and triumphing over an obstacle, or conquest of a fair-maidenÃ¢â¬â¢s love. But notice what this passage from the Mahabharata says about Ã¢â¬Å"The True Hero.Ã¢â¬ Heroes of many kinds are proclaimed: hear from me, then, their goals. Rewards are assigned to the families of heroes and also to the hero himself. Heroes of sacrifice, heroes of self-control; others who are heroes of truth; heroes of battle are also proclaimed, and men who are heroes of giving. Others are heroes of intellect, and heroes of patience are others; and also heroes of honesty, and men who live in tranquility . . . There are forest-dwelling heroes, and householder heroes, and heroes in the honoring of guests. (Mahabharata XIII.74.22-27) Sir Gawain and the Green Knight encompasses every point brought out in the Mahabharata about what a hero truly is. Sacrifice is a quality that many persons choose to ignore. But Sir Gawain, throughout the book, magnified this virtue to its extent, even to the brink of death. When the Green Knight challenged the knights of King Arthur for a game, and King Arthur volunteered, it was Sir Gawain who stepped in. Sir Gawain was quick to explain to Arthur, Ã¢â¬Å"When a challenge like this rings through your hall/To take it yourself . . . For battle. Think of your bold knights,/My life the least, my death no loss. . .Ã¢â¬ (58). Of course all of King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s knights were valuable to the kingdom, so the phrase of Ã¢â¬Å"my death no loss,Ã¢â¬ merely meant that the kingdom of King Arthur would continue without Sir Gawain, but it would not continue with the death King Arthur. Sacrifice continued to play a part even to the halfway point of the book and beyond. Such as that of sacrificing the pleasures of a woman which quite possibly was the greatest of all sacrifices, one that we know Sir Lancelot would have failed at miserably. This sacrifice would indeed save Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s life at the end of the story. Throughout the three days spent in BercilakÃ¢â¬â¢s castle, Morgana tried to seduce him, but each and every time he refused (86-90). From line 1830-1865 (104) we read of one moment that Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s virtuous ways faltered.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
You may not recognise me at first. But trust me, you know me well. I'm the voice that makes you crave those "Light and Tangy" potato chips, and the mocha cream puff - the one with inch-thick cream and smooth lemon vanilla custard, sandwiched between light choux pastry with mocha flavoured icing on top, drizzled with chocolate. Do you know who I am now?I'm the reason you smoke 20 cigarettes every day - you try to give up, but we both know you always cave in and smoke all the more. We both know you'll never give up. You like it too much. In fact, you need one right now, don't you? Go on: have one. You know it's no risk, even sensible Logic tells you that people get killed just crossing the road. "We've all gotta die sometime" - right? And, don't worry about that cream puff - you can walk the dogs later to work the calories off. Ok, so we both know Procrastination will come along and you'll put it off until tomorrow - but don't worry about that now. You need a cigarette and one more is not going to kill you (not right now anyway). Why not enjoy the moment? Got ya! See: it works every time!Remember the other day when you "chose" not to go to school because, after all, you weren't going to miss anything important, were you? That was me. Ha! There you were, snuggled in your fluffy doona, sleepy, and warm. As you woke, you sensed the dark clouds outside dimming the room, and you heard the rain splattering on the roof and lashing at the windows, and it was such a good idea to stay there wasn't it? Yes, you certainly thought so at the time. You missed the start of a new topic at school, but hey, you'll catch up. Of course the first thing you'll have to do is finish catching up on the theory you missed from before ... but you can do it ... later. Things always work out - just go with the flow - hey, I wouldn't want you to worry now, would I? Trust me!Trust you? Now that you've revealed your true colours I realise what a fool I've been. I've listened to you all along, going against what I truly knew was good for me, all the time unaware of your power over me.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Simulation-based nursing education has increased and become a more popular approach for clinicians or educators. It provides a real-life situational experience for students to practice skills, applies critical thinking and makes the decision throughout the simulation. This article is a reflection journal after a simulation for cardiac arrest. Reflection learning has been described as a process of critically reviewing experience from practice so that it may be used to inform and change future practice in a positive way (Bulman, 2008). In this simulation-based resuscitation reflection, the effectiveness of using of the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) framework during communication between allied health care professionals, teamwork during resuscitation and methods of collecting history from patient and patient will be discussed. Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) framework. In this simulation, the nurse communicated with a physician by using traditional way to report patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition via phone. Physician promoted and obtained information. SBAR is a communication model which includes Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation. The use of SBAR promotes quality and patient safety by setting shared expectations in terms of what is communicated. SBAR allows for efficient and predictable sharing of information by creating a shared mental model (Shapiro, J. 2017). It has become very popular among healthcare setting, especially between physicians and nurses. It is an effective way of communication for healthcare professionals and allows for transferring of important information. The SBAR framework is considered by nurses and physicians to be an effective method for organizing the handoff report (Stewart, 2016). A study showed improved perceptions of communication in nurse-to-nurse and nurse-to-physician sceneries by using pre/ post-SBAR implementation questionnaires (Blom, Petersson, Hagell, & Westergren, 2015). Hailu, Kassahun, & Kerie (2016) founded that communication failure between nurse and physicians was one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claim. Use of SBAR framework has been a method which can overcome this communication problem, Thus, using of SBAR framework has two major implication in future. First, nursing education should include appropriate use of SBAR framework which can be used for effective communication at clinical areas (Stewart, & Hand, 2016). Same education will provide the same perception of SBAR framework and provide better application of this framework. Second, Stewart and Hand (2016) also suggested that SBAR framework should be applied by nurses as a guideline for all handover communication between nurses and physicians, inter/intra department or institutions. Inpatient safety, effective communication during patient handoffs is the nursing priority (The Joint Commission, 2015). TEAMWORK In this simulation, endotracheal intubation was done in different manners. In the first team, all members did endotracheal intubation and stopped chest compression. In second group one person struggled and did an endotracheal intubation. Teamwork was not done in this simulation. As this procedure should need two persons at least. Teamwork and leadership were lacked. Resuscitation is a stressful, time-pressured procedure, and unfortunately if often futile. Care of a patient in the emergency setting is particularly prone to errors and adverse events for a variety of reasons. These include the time-pressured decision making, increased rate of patient interventions, and the fact that teams are Ã¢â¬Å"assembledÃ¢â¬ by the emergency call that may have never worked together, or even met each other, before. (Walker, 2013). Even though there were a well-known cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) algorithms among health care professionals, the results of CPR were remained poor (Hunziker, Johansson, Tschan, Semmer, Rock, Howell, & Marsch, 2011). Hunziker et al. (2011) indicated some other factors like teamwork and leadership affect the application of CPR algorithm and hence the performance of CPR, besides the technical skills of the resuscitation team members. Research has shown that teamwork and leadership training has been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation (Hunziker et al., 2011). History taking History was taken from a patient in this simulation. The nurse used OLDCART known as O-Onset, L-Location, D-Duration, C-Characteristics, A- Aggravating factors, R-Relieving factors, T-Treatment to obtain a history of present illness from the patient. Nursing care encompasses knowledge, skill, and competence to enable holistic patient assessment (Office of the Chief Nursing Officer (OCNO) (Ireland), 2016). Professional nursing care involves capturing, analyzing and interpreting patient information (OCNO, 2016), initially through the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health history. Obtaining a detailed clinical history is a core competency of many advanced nursing roles (National Council for the Professional Development of Nursing and Midwifery (NCNM) (Ireland), 2008; Tagney and Younker, 2012; Apau, 2010; Quigley and Martin, 2013), in combination with the advanced physical assessment. Taking a comprehensive health history is a core competency of the advanced nursing role. The purpose of the health history is to source important and intimate knowledge about the patient, their lifestyle, social supports, medical history and health concerns, with the history of presenting illness as the focus and allow the nurse and patient to establish a therapeutic relationship ( Ingram, 2017). At the beginning of history taking, the nurse had established a therapeutic relationship with the patient. During assessing of chest pain, pain score was used to evaluate the severity of pain. This provided a common language between nurses and physicians. CONCLUSION Errors in communication continue to be a contributing factor in adverse patient events in healthcare systems (The Joint Commission, 2015). The systemic nature of the problem of miscommunication between healthcare providers supports the need for a standardized communication method. The SBAR tool is a simple, effective method for communication that operates across disciplines and is well- received by healthcare professionals (Blom et al., 2015; Nagammal et al., 2017). Use of the SBAR tool thus should be implemented systematically to improve healthcare communication and create a safer patient care environment. A study had shown that communication was still affected due to structure absence, loss of information and low adherence after implementation (Ludikhuize, de Jonge, & Goossens, 2011). As part of professional obligation and for a better outcome of patients, nurses and physician should discuss their communication level while giving care to the patient, communicate openly, in mutual professional respect, and share patientÃ¢â¬â¢s information. Moreover, these professional needs play a vital role in creating smooth and a well-defined communication channel (Hailu, Kassahun, & Kerie, 2016). Teamwork is an essential non-technical skill in the perioperative environment. Along with other key factors, it plays a vital role in safe and effective practice and should be fostered and encouraged through appropriate training and education. The model of teamwork training best suited to the perioperative environment is less clear. Great care must be taken to ensure that any model used offers the maximum benefit to patients and staff in terms of perioperative safety. Superimposing popular management techniques and training models from other sectors onto this inter-disciplinary, time and safety critical environment may not achieve the desired outcomes or represent the good use of limited resources. Recommendations It is clear that more research is required into what is the best model of teamwork training for the perioperative environment. While there have been some controlled studies, a methodology for robust RCTs must be developed in order to bridge the existing knowledge gaps around the clinical effects of teamwork training. Similarly, longer-term effects and the level of need for ongoing training and mentorship must be established. The key recommendation, however, relates to inter-disciplinary team training at the pre-clinical stage. The evidence set out in this paper suggests that inter-disciplinary training in simulation offers a range of benefits to perioperative staff, particularly in the areas of communication, cooperation, and team building. Similarly, interdisciplinary learning in healthcare education appears to promote collaborative working and greater understanding of professional roles. In the experience of the author, however, medical students do not take part in the simulated perioperative exercises which are a key aspect of the training and education of operating department practitioners. The integration of medical students at this level is something which is highlighted in the literature as potentially important in breaking down stereotypes and challenging the establishment of the medical hierarchy. Introducing interdisciplinary training which includes medical students, nursing students, ODP stude nts and allied healthcare students working together in simulated scenarios, could help to demystify aspects of the perioperative environment and to address barriers to teamwork and communication before they become established. Further research is required to explore the optimum form and duration of this approach to learning and to establish what if any, effects this has on the future clinical practice of participants. In this respect, the student environment would serve as an excellent testing ground. Roche, F. (2016) We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on the performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients. (Hunziker et al., 2011).
Monday, September 16, 2019
Business management Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The art of managing a business, means coordinating the various efforts of the staff with the aim of accomplishing goals and the set objectives with the aid of available resources effectively and efficiently. Business management generally comprise of organization, planning, leading, staffing, and controlling organization activities to achieve the prospected goal. Many organizations are viewed as systems. It therefore dictates that management is a human action, which includes designing, facilitating the production of important outcomes from the system. This then present a picture people being able to manage themselves is a prerequisite in trying to manage other people (Ananthan, Appannaiah, & Reddy, 2010). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Theoretically, business management includes manipulating of human capital in an enterprise to enhance the business success. An enterprise must therefore include humans, positive communication, and endeavors that are positive (Ananthan, Appannaiah, & Reddy, 2010). Other factors such as psychological motivational tools, plans, goals, measurements, and economic measures at times can or cannot be important components of business management. Critical business functions Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the current tumultuous business world economy, enterprises must adjust to fit.. It is necessary for the business to be aggressive in finding means of remaining competitive in the current economy of the world. One of the critical things to do is to restructure its functionality mode (Sen, 2008). Many times some of the enterprises that try this are faced with failure due to existence of stumbling blocks. Therefore, it is worth for the business to come up with well structured plan to go through these radical changes. The best way of doing this is by fully including their staff prior to and after making a decision that impacts change in the operation of the business (Ananthan, Appannaiah, & Reddy, 2010). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Companies that are willing to understand some of inextricable that might occur within the time of preparing the workers to welcome the new changes and the effective and efficient new initiatives implementation, then, are likely to notice that their efforts make an extra mile. Through careful planning and top leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ support will help the workforce to adjust to the changes- therefore the business will hence remain at its competitive edge (Sen, 2008). Individuals and systems integration for effectiveness in an organization Ã Ã Ã Ã In the dynamic technological advancement, any business corporations need to be in line with the ever changing business operation systems. Aggressively, all the individuals are supposed to accept the role played by these systems. The most crucial system is that of passing information, all the workers are deemed to be aware with any new implementation at any particular point. Communication keeps the business running, internally; the workforce will be flexible if and only if, the information passed is clear. Externally; information coming will enhance the enterprise to be aware of the competition level of their competitors and then adjust appropriately. Effective integrations will subdue the full utilizations of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities (Sen, 2008) The ethical and social responsibilities bestowed on a business Ã Ã Ã In terms of ethical issues the business is faced with great challenge of remaining a loft with its initial target of servicing their prospected customers. Some of the ethical issues are quality service and quality productions. Any business that has been in the market for long and their service and goods have gained a brand, should not start lowering the quality and quantity of service and goods production. They also need to run their business in relation to the demand of the general public and the requirement the state (Kwarci, 2012). Ã Ã Ã Ã Socially, businesses have the responsibility of playing a great partnership with the state and the general public at large. They need to be part and parcel of the major operations of the society in such a way that take part of society development. Environmental protection is also their great responsibility in ensuring its prosperity. In regard to the state, business need to be aware of the need to pay taxes in advance to avoid being in conflict with the state (Kwarci, 2012). The aspects of business management Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The following will be some of the very crucial aspects that any business manager ought to be equipped with to facilitate the process of business management. Human resources, is one of the most crucial aspects of any business. It involves looking after the well being of your staff, it is the staff that determines your way as business. Another aspect is that of marketing, sales and promotion. Once the products and services have been produced, it is the responsibility of the sales marketing department. A well strategized plan from this department will see the business go up in the total sales (Ananthan, Appannaiah, & Reddy, 2010). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These aspects are very crucial because they really give out the clear picture of the business from within and outside business environment. In conclusion, they help the enterprise to furnish their business outlook before the eyes of the customer and very importantly to those of their competitors. References Ananthan, B. R., Appannaiah, H. R., & Reddy, P. N. (2010). Business management (Rev. Ed.) Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House. KwarciÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¾ski, T. (2012). Ethics of Business or Ethics for Business? Two Models for Teaching Business Ethics. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 3(116), 42-49. Sen, M. (2008). Business management. Jaipur, India: Oxford Book Co Source document
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Charles Manson had experienced a very bumpy childhood being the son of a teenage, bisexual, alcoholic prostitute. Being shuffled between homes of relatives and orphanages, it is not surprising to see that his criminal activity sprouted from a very early age. MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s incredible charisma attracted many hippies and he managed to earn himself s reputation as god-like in the eyes of many beautiful girls. When Manson and his Ã¢â¬Å"FamilyÃ¢â¬ settled down in Spahn Ranch he was able to sleep with a different girl each night. Not only this, but he had the power to make his Family members murder whomever he was unhappy with. In fact, the Family members were often more than happy to commit murder is it pleased Charles Manson. The Family used particularly gruesome methods of homicide and one woman had even contemplated carving an unborn baby out of the body of a murdered woman, as it would have made Manson proud. Charles Manson managed to brainwash his followers and make them worship like a god. He abused power severely by ordering his Family members to kill people, often random, for his satisfaction. Being in his position, he could have prevented all the murders however he chose not to, and never hesitated to even discourage them. Charles Manson is best known for the murder of Sharon Tate. Actually it would be more accurate to say Charles Manson and his Ã¢â¬Å"familyÃ¢â¬ murdered Sharon Tate, and actress and wife of director Roman Polanski. The victims of the Manson family included Sharon Tate and her unborn baby Paul Richard Polanski, as well as her guests that evening, Abigail Folger, and her boyfriend Voytek Frykowski, and an internationally known hair stylist Jay Sebring. The day after those murders the family killed Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. Before either of these murders took place part of the family murdered Gary Hinman. A man named Donald Ã¢â¬Å"shortyÃ¢â¬ Shea was also killed. The Manson Family also eventually killed defense attorney for one of the Manson Family members, Ronald Hughes, during the course of the trial. So why would Charles Manson lead a number of followers to commit theseÃ horrendous and meaningless crimes? Manson knew the layout of the Polanski house. It is quite possible that the crimes were committed at that house because Manson wanted to scare Terry Melcher for not backing his recording career. Terry Melcher, was a man in the music business. Manson tried unsuccessfully to convince Melcher to finance a film in which MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s music could be used. Melcher once lived in the Polanski house, and thus by killing tenants, the Family could scare him. Some people in the family believed that it was done because it would spark nation wide publicity and the murders would be Ã¢â¬Å"noticed.Ã¢â¬ The Manson Family murders are certainly the most bizarre acts of serial murder the United States has ever seen. The reason is that MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s motives do not fit under the more common motives held by serial killers. In conclusion I think Manson was a coward, he dragged desperate and innocent people that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know any better, into his problems. After brain washing his people he told them to do the killing, actually never committing a murder himself. These murders were so bizarre because what would you expect from a bunch of brainwashed hippies, tripping out on acid. They were legally insane therefore, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think they really knew what they were doing most of the time, which made things worse.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Blockbuster is an entity in operation of varied websites which are aimed at protecting individuals work from external piracy.Ã Its administration follows a responsive schedule of administrative activities through which it can provide its service to its customers in the most efficient manner. Ã Service is organized through the online, where personal information is collected for the processing of such protection to piracy of materials from its users.Ã In all its activities it exercises high marketing orientations for its services to its current user and even non-user. Strengths: By the nature of its activities, its services are offered for the protection of piracy in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s production and works.Ã Firstly, this is an adaptative feature with Blockbuster, where it can even capture many users in respect to the current problem in piracy of copyrighted work and other materials.Ã Piracy has been voiced as a global problem, which has called for many sanctions, laws and regulations for the protection of individuals work.Ã There have been many attempts by many governments in order to control the state of piracy among productions.Ã To Blockbuster, they attempt to formulate a strategy that works to protect piracy in productions have had it get many customers who try to seek refuge in their work against piracy. Either, it has a diversified plane of the customers that it serves in which case, Blockbuster serves varied discipline of materials against piracy.Ã Through this, it can thus reach many varied character traits and customers work productions Block duster has wide spread website advertisements that captures many customers. Such a method helps to reach many customers. Weaknesses The organizational structure of service to customers consists of a system of broad requirements where it has to collect wide range personal information from its customers.Ã Such system has been composed of too informal and bureaucratic requirements that only work to outweigh the strengths born to its customers.Ã Either, the exercise of joining the organization by the customers has also been too expensive in terms costs. This problem has even led to failure by most interested parties to join the system for their services.Ã The system also addresses on specific requirements for the customers to join it, where some specific requirements to the work under protection is required.Ã This has worked to outweigh most of the customers to joining the system. Opportunities Due to its varied nature of its operations, Blockbuster has the potential of expanding and even reaching many people.Ã Its operation is based on voluntary basis where any interested individual can join the organization.Ã ItÃ¢â¬â¢s highly non discriminative in terms of geographical, ethnic or even racial grounds.Ã With this modality, it invites all interested people who can join their service provision. Either, its operations are done online which reduces the effect of distance barrier for people in receiving their services. It can therefore attract many people through more online administration.Ã Due to the expanding nature of protection to materials in the globe, Blockbuster have a broad arena of expanded horizons in giving services to its customers who are highly in an attempted to seek protection of their work against piracy. (McConnell, 2004) Threats Its high administrative requirements for personal material which is too inefficient to the people may bring a high competition issues by its competitors which may finally lead to them being outweighed.Ã Either, the general administration policies seek to reduce the interest of its customers from joining the organization in the complaint of bureaucratic requirements for customerÃ¢â¬â¢s service.Ã Either, selectivity to material under protection results to a reduced interest by making people in joining it to complain of their inability to meet the requirements for their admission. Marketing strategies Blockbuster marketing consists of varied modalities that are aimed at improving its marketing system.Ã A coordinated marketing strategies approach enables it to prevail in the market, which is full of other competitors. Perhaps the most evident marketing strategy attribute with Blockbuster is its decentralized positioning.Ã Unlike other firms which work only within a limited radius of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ service, Blockbuster uses online system to reach its customers.Ã This is a strategy that seeks to lower distance inefficiencies for services to customers. For Blockbuster, perhaps its biggest success comes from the nature of tits activities branding.Ã It is known to be a service provider in relation to provision of protection on piracy to peoples work.Ã With its services brand category, the organization attracts many customers who seek such services.Ã Either, piracy evident in a broad range of production works helps the organization to reach many customers. In order to capture the interest of many customers, Blockbuster has used an attractive package in pricing its services.Ã Its price is relatively low and varies substantially to the work under piracy protection.Ã Generally, Blockbuster has used a low price cost for its services which even makes it to compete with its competitors in the market.Ã Due to its high turnover, it has even increased in expansion over the past two years. Blockbuster offers a broad range of piracy protection services to its customers.Ã Such works are copyrighted material, electronic digital work and different patent righted works. The nature of its services is both on small and large scale service provisions which ensure that, it serves all the possible customers in the market. Such service is strictly devised to be online to secure different market efficiencies and economies.Ã This is perhaps a good market strategy that helps it to reach its customers easily. Perhaps the greatest marketing strategy that is evident with Blockbuster is its dynamic placement of it operational centers.Ã It consists of online provision of piracy protection service to its customers. Such method of service provision is non-discriminatory to the distances and thus customers can be served from varied places.Ã This decentralized marketing system helps it capture more customers. (Smith, 1997, p.112) It uses various promotion strategies to expand its catchments area; firstly, it has developed a broad internet advertisement that seeks to reach many people at different places.Ã Internet advertising is indiscriminative to place and other advertising inefficiencies.Ã Such methods help to capture many customers at cheap cash. Above internet advertising, Blockbuster has administered a personal selling strategy where it has employed its agents who personally visit customers at different point. Such agency system helps even to improve on the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ popularity to those who may not be aware.Ã Above general sales, the agents help to sale on the business stakeholder ship of the firm. The organization has engaged in diverse various promotions on its products.Ã It has offered cost advantages to huge customers who are offered with price reductions and other after sale services.Ã Other cost efficient allowances are given to new members.Ã Other promotions services are free offers on purchase of some service in regard to service offered or even time frame aspect. (Smith, 1997, p.59) Above all, the promotion behaviour has high sense of public relations to its customers.Ã Its administrative layout is designed to provide the highest customer relations that ensure developed interest by the customers to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s services.Ã The frame of administrative structure focuses on ensuring the high customers satisfaction above efficiency and low cost of service. Reference Smith, G. (1997) The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford: Oxford University Press McConnell, A (2004) Making Wal-Mart Pretty: Trademarks and Aesthetic Restrictions on BigÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Box Retailers.Ã Duke Law Journal, vol. 53 Ã Ã Ã
Friday, September 13, 2019
Criminal Law - Assignment Example Common law has fundamental roots from judicial and customs precedents and not statutes. It forms part of English law that mostly contrasts statutory law. Common law relates to English law modified and adopted differently by federal governments (Casenotes and Briefs 77). Mores describes the conventions and identifiable customs of the community. Mores relates to habits, ways of life or traditions embraced by the community. Mores defines the moral attitudes acceptable in an individual society. Stare a decisi relates to the doctrines of precedent in the creation of legal principle of determining points in a lawsuit. It defines the principles of law on which the court used to rest an erstwhile decision. Statute law, as opposed to customary or oral law, refers to written laws by legislators and legislatures. Legislators write statute laws in monarchy states. Legislative rules prescribe, declare, or commands specific requirements. Substantive Criminal law relates to written rulings that explain the duties and rights in criminal and civil law. States can enact substantive criminal law by initiative processes (Cole, Smith, and DeJong 75). It includes component items that usable to qualify and make a case as a crime. It involves breach of the constitution. They include an act involving physical action and criminal intent. Winning criminal trials involves proving that an element of necessity is absent. Bill of Attainder is a statutory act imposing punishment on an individual or a group of easily recognizable individuals. In most instances, decision on treason is executed without trial. The American constitution prohibits
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Professionalization of modern sport For Profit or Glory - Essay Example The twenty-first century has been characterised by numerous transformations that have seen football and in particular the English Premier League being commercialised and turned into a multi-billion business investment from which the owners and investors are reaping billions of pounds in revenues (Roster and Shropshire, 2011). For this reason, the last decade saw the three top-flight league clubs Chelsea, Manchester United, and Manchester City being auctioned and sold out to investors Ã¢â¬â a move that significantly changed the operations and impacted the management of the clubs. However, some opponents argue that the multi-billion takeovers were healthy for the clubs since the investors have vast amounts of disposable incomes to hire and attract world class players from across the globe as well as be able to maintain their huge wages. Although, this has not been the situation because many of these clubs, currently face various challenges that have become threats to their future competitiveness (Ferguson, 2013). The Manchester United faces a number of governance issues that have their roots in the 2005 take over and the recent challenges of corporate governance practices. The moment the Glazers announced their planned takeover of Manchester United, the news elicited mixed reactions from the loyal and die-hard supporters of the club. A significant number of them were opposed to the move since they wanted Manchester United to remain a community club with no designated owner because they feared a single investor would take over ownership and impose his will on the management of the organisation, which would be against their wish. For this reason, the supporters organised peaceful demonstrations that were coupled with a number of petitions to the ministry of culture to bare and nullify the deal from being procured. Unfortunately, the contract was sealed, and the Glazers obtained a seventy percent stake in
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
What Is Neoliberalism In The United States - Research Paper Example Unlike in other countries such as the Western Europe and Japan, the United States has been very successful in terms of the use of neoliberal policies in this country. This explains why the United States is considered the leader of imperialist countries (Dumenil and Levy 9). In general, the concept of neoliberalism is based on the classical liberal economic practice that was widely used in the United States for many years way before the Great Depression took place in 1930s (Dumenil and Levy 1, 12). However, between the mid-1930s up to mid-1970s, the US government decided to implement the use of the Ã¢â¬Å"interventionistÃ¢â¬ approach rather than the typical classical liberalism (Kotz). When Ronald Reagan was elected as the President of the United States back in 1980, the US government started supporting the use the classical liberalism in making public policies which aims to limit labor power, deregulate industries and agriculture within and outside the United States (Harvey). The main purpose of this study is to discuss the significance of neoliberalism in North Atlantic states particularly in the case of the United States. As part of analyzing the impact of neoliberalism in the U.S., this study will first discuss what neoliberalism is all about followed by discussing how neoliberalism in the United States has affected the developments in Ã¢â¬Å"deregulationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"privatizationÃ¢â¬ of public companies. What is Neoliberalism? According to Dumenil and Levy (5), neoliberalism is the Ã¢â¬Å"new phase in the evolution of capitalismÃ¢â¬ . Basically, the word Ã¢â¬Å"neoliberalismÃ¢â¬ is commonly used as a general term for economic liberalization of public policies and advocates (Fish; Boas and Gans-Morse). Since we are already in the era of globalization, a lot of academic institutions have considered neoliberalism as a Ã¢â¬Å"central guiding principle of economic thought and managementÃ¢â¬ (Harvey). However, the question remains as to what n eoliberalization really mean and why the United States has been very supportive of neoliberalism? As defined by Mirowski and Plehwe (13-14), neoliberalism is Ã¢â¬Å"the priority of the price mechanism, the free enterprise, the system of competition and a strong and impartial stateÃ¢â¬ . It means that neoliberalism strongly believe in the idea that a society should never be considered as a product of natural development. Instead, people should continuously promote the importance of having a free society that is subject to a Ã¢â¬Å"free market economyÃ¢â¬ or an Ã¢â¬Å"unregulated capitalist systemÃ¢â¬ (Harvey ; Kotz). In general, the neoliberals strongly believe that a free market competition could challenge each business entity to improve not only their knowledge in managing a business but also maximize the use of technology. By giving each person the freedom to choose, neoliberals explained that business people can support the increase in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s overall economi c performance. It means that the business people are expected to become more focused in finding ways on how they can effectively increase their production efficiency and output, progress in the use of machineries and information technology, and promote distributional justice in order to increase the annual U.S. economic growth. As a free country that practices free trading, Kotz explained that the U.S. government has a limited role in its economic development. In general, the neoliberals consider the presence of state intervention as an external factor that can trigger more problems on the part of the business sectors. The public policy under neoliberalism