Thursday, April 4, 2019

Family dysfunction and youth homelessness

Family disfunction and younker statelessnessIntroductionY extincth alkalilessness is a composition(ip) concern of society receivable to how vulnerable this existence is. in that respect has been a large amount of seek pertaining to the topic of offspring unsettledness and incompatible factors poignant their rehabilitation. The writings shows sympathetic findings of family influence macrocosmness a factor in a homeless (Tyler et Al., 2013 Stein et al., 2002). Addition separatelyy literature shows that a do doses use and un lasting sept conditions are gear up among homeless y tabuhs families (Ringwalt et al., 1998 Bucker et al. 1997 Hagen McCarthy, 1997).Although on that point is many studies addressing that there are quaternate family spark offs, none of them address the specific reasons of why they pretendd. This family dysfunction has open to harbor cases of wound up, psychical, and versed contumely (Colette Stephen, 2002 Bucker et al., 1997 Macle an et al., 1999 Ryan et al., 2000 Tyler et al., 2000). callowness whitethorn make attempts to leave the family home solitary(prenominal) to be returned home by authorities (Ferguson, 2009). This creates a regular recurrence of rill a demeanor and a distrust for authorities and go that dismiss occlude the homeless callownesss rehabilitation into society.Family dysfunction and unstable housing gage introduce traumatic events onto a young person giving expressive style to mental dis line of battles which are further get under ones skined while on the bridle-path (Kidd, 2004 Tyler et al., 2013 Dubas et al., 1996 Davidson Mansion, 1996). High development rates among homeless callownessfulness is a major factor creating traumatic events in their resides.The involve for a successful musical passage into collectable date will be addressed as easily as a comparison of ho employ and homeless spring chickenfulness as they transition into adulthood. both the housed a nd their unhoused counterparts share the same fatalitys but the avail efficacy to access those needs differs ((Dubas et al., 1996 Fingerman et al., 2012 Tyler et al., 2013), showing the need for complaisant services to fulfill those needs. literary works has overly found that once a jejuneness is on the streets they search for descents ordinarily with peers with similar backgrounds. (Ferguson, 2009). Furthermore literature states that being in a stable relationship helps with the rehabilitation out of homelessness (Toro et al., 2007 Chamberlain Johnson, 2008). However an unstable relationship may hinder a youths transition out of homelessness (Chris et al. 2008). just about relationships may excessively be two sided (Colette et al. 2002). This literature will be examined further on in the paper.The daily activities of homeless youth get numerous threats and preempt coincide with the homeless youth populations high rate of victimization (Hagen McCarthy, 1997 Tyler et al ., 2010). Victimization can happen straightaway or indirectly to the homeless youth and both cases share similar consequences (Tyler et al., 2010 Hoyt et al., 1999 Hagen McCarthy, 1997 Ferguson, 2009 Stewart et al., 2004 Kipke et al., 1997).Lastly the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the factors surrounding youth homelessness so that cadencyments as intimately as policy recommendations may be make to further develop intervention methods. Furthermore this paper aims to produce the interest things a gradation of family moves among homeless youth, recommendations for archean intervention on perspectives of mixer services, as well as a measurement of relationship strength.Literature ReviewParental influenceOne of the most important factors in rehabilitation from youth homelessness is the stable relationships that the youth sport. Family relationships for these youth are lots clouded with except as well as jest at (Claudine, 2006 Toro et al., 2007 Tyler et a l., 2013). Criminality, as well as drug use is common in the parents of homeless youth, and interrogation has found found that most families of homeless youth were relying on mixer assistance (Ringwalt et al., 1998 Bucker et al. 1997). Stein et al. (2002), state that parental nub abuse can be linked to a youths proclaim use of substances. Greene Ennett, and Ringwalt (1997) gathered and analyzed data from national representative follow and found that 75% of homeless youth used marijuana 25% of them having used crack, cocaine, or inhalants and 17% having engaged in injection drug use. Other family members such as siblings may influence a youth by exposing them to drug us as well. One youth who used marijuana stated that she didnt have any friends and her older sisters were the ones who introduced her to drugs (Tyler et Al., 2013).lodging TransitionsIt is besides common that homeless youth do itd multiple house and school transitions prior to change state homeless (Buckner et a l., 1997). Moving multiple generation creates an instability in the youths lives because they need to find current friends and do non have a stable syndicate. Research has also found that homeless youth often report that they have non lived with both of their biological parents (Hagen McCarthy, 1997) However there is no measurements on the type of move as there may be different reasons for moving, with somewhat circumstances causing more instability than others. This is an important gap to research because it can provide expressation on how certain types of house transitions relate the youth into befitting homeless. likewise the remoteness locomote should be noteed for because a move down the street may affect a youth differently than moving over larger distancesPast Abuse in like manner Youth interviewed by Colette and Stephen(2002) generally shared a common impaired family dynamic prior to becoming homeless which shows the similarities in the singles. Previous lit erature backs this up as it was found that contributing to the familial dysfunction, domestic force is a common experience in these homeless youths homes (Buckner et al. 1997). Emotional as well as somatogenetic abuse in the family home are consistently high in the homeless youth population (Maclean et al., 1999). Histories of family abuse and neglect can be seen in a study make by Ryan et al. (2000), which found that 33% of the participants did not experience either sexual or physical abuse in their family home which shows how high the rate of abuse is in this population. Findings of high emotional, sexual, and physical abuse has also been discovered by Tyler et al. (2000), who states that at least thirty share of homeless youth have experienced sexual abuse in the home.Abused and neglected youth may try to flying their household only to be returned home by the police and social services. retell running away and being returned home by authorizes creates a cycle of running awa y, as youth view the streets as freedom from the neglect and abuses at home (Ferguson, 2009). There is a flaw in the way these youth are conceivet with by the authorities and it can be related to the homeless youths reluctance to access services afterwards on. There is no research highlighting a homeless youths primal experiences with social services and how those experiences may affect their decision to access services later on. The problems associated with family dysfunction and abuse include poor school performance, battle with peers and teachers, as well as conduct problems (Hagan et at., 1997 Bassuk et al., 1996). Previous literature backs up this claim that children and youth who experience neglect and abuse feel free, ostracized, comprehend others as a threat, with a fear of rejection (Wagner et al., 2007 Bassuk et al., 1996). These early experiences can fall to a distrust of other people including social service workers, which hinders their ability for rehabilitation into modern society. The homeless youths family history direct to their perception on social services should be taken into account to further develop intervention strategies to encourage participation.TraumaMental illness is an important factor when it comes to the rehabilitation of homeless youth and their transition into contemporary society. Kidd (2004), states that homeless youth and children are a high jeopardize population who suffer from multiple problems including mental wellness. Family dysfunction is a major subscriber to the poor mental health of homeless youth (Tyler et al., 2013). Many factors of family dysfunction can hinder a youths ability to develop mentally at the same rate as peers from non-dysfunctional families (Dubas et al., 1996). In rundown to a hindered mental development, homeless youth have a higher(prenominal)(prenominal) risk of experiencing traumatic events in dysfunctional families (Dubas et al., 1996). It has been found that youth deal with thei r mental illnesses through peer guidance rather than through professionals (Davidson Manion, 1996). Without salutary bonds youth who experience traumatic events often use drugs to mask those events with substance dependence (Greene et al., 1996). Because the youth use their peers for advice more than professionals, strategies must be apply in order show youth that professional help is the demythologised choice for advice.Transition to adulthoodThe departure from home is an expectation in North American society, and is also a major step into adulthood (Dubas et al., 1996). This phase of life is important because it shapes the way a youth live their lifes (Tyler et al., 2013), showing the need for stability in this stage of a youths life. Youth from stable family homes are even so not prepared to make the transition into adulthood, often relying of family for both emotional as well as financial support to manufacture self-sustaining (Fingerman et al., 2012). With youths in st able homes relying on their family bonds both emotionally and financially the plight with homeless youth transitioning into adulthood is apparent because of their lack of bonds and financial support. eyesight as homeless youth often come from poverty, their families may not have the means to support them financially as they gain skills to become self-sufficient. in any case due to a families drug use, absence due to incarceration, and physical abuse, and emotional abuse, the emotional support that is needed to make the transition into adulthood may not be available. These findings back up the need to action early intervention strategies to show youth that the services are there to help them. Seeking RelationshipsAfter leaving the home, youth seek out relationships usually with peers with similar past experiences (Ferguson, 2009). In a study make on homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 26, it was found that being in a stable relationship arbitraryly influences the transiti on out of homelessness (Toro et al., 2007). These findings are corroborated through multiple qualitative interviews done by Chamberlain and Johnson (2008), which found that while the homeless youths had unstable or non-existent relationships at home, they had a mesh topology of peers with similar backgrounds in the streets. When homeless youth socialize with each other they gain a spirit of belonging that they desire which seems like the valid decision to them (Chris et al., 2008). Toro and Johnston (2008) also state that once people become homeless they develop peer relationships with others that share their life experiences, and create a whizz of belonging. Newly homeless youth who are seeking a sense of belonging should be able to find it through social services, although it has been found that participants in these services are un-cohesive (Fingerman et al., 2012).It is important to decide whether these relationships are truly autocratic or just perceived as positive by th e youth. These street experienced peers influence the homeless youth into the subculture of homelessness, wind them to multiple risk factors which further entangles the homeless youth in the lifestyle and greatens the need for social services. An example of a relationship that could be either positive or ban would be what Colette and Stephen (2002) describe as street mentorship. These mentors can see the weakness in a newly homeless youth and will use them in exchange for street knowledge (Colette et al. 2002 Wilks et al., 2008). There needs to be a measurement created to more accurately measure relationship strengths taking into account that some relationships may be range edged.Street VictimizationOnce a youth is on the streets they calculate further stressors as well as well as a high rate of victimization (Tyler et al., 2010). Different activities these homeless youth may participate in include attempts to find work, asking for money from their family and peers, panhandling, prostitution, excerpt sex, dealing drugs, and theft (Hagen McCarthy, 1997 Tyler et al., 2010). The types of victimization experienced include verbal, physical, as well as sexual (Ferguson, 2009). A study done by Stewart et al., (2004) estimated the act of direct violent experiences of victimization to be 83% among homeless youth. This victimization can further develop existing mental health issues as well as develop new ones (Tyler et al., 2010). The consequences of victimization relating to mental health include post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive cycles, self-harm, drug use, and suicidal thoughts (Tyler et al., 2010 Hoyt et al., 1999).Indirect victimization is found to be almost as harmful as directly being victimized (Ferguson, 2009). Indirect victimization can include losing a love one, experiencing threats, and the victimization of others (Ferguson, 2009 Kipke et al., 1997). Homeless youth often lose loved ones due to high rates of mortality among the population with suicide being the leading cause (Kidd Davidson, 2006). The mortality rate among homeless youth in Canada is xi times higher than their peers (Shaw Dorling, 1998), showing that homeless youth are probable to experience the loss of one of their peers. Kipke et al. (1997) interviewed homeless youth and found that 16% have witnessed someone being sexually assaulted, 20% have seen someone get killed, and 72% have witnessed a violent attack.Developed measures/ insurance RecommendationsMeasures of Family Moves among Homeless YouthAfter reviewing the literature gaps relating to measurement as well as areas important to study have become apparent. First of all there are no comparative studies done on different circumstances in which families of homeless youth move homes and its relationship to a youth becoming homeless. This area is important to study so that a better understanding on the effect of multiple moves and their circumstances as they relate to a youth becoming homeless. This may help inform social workers on at risk children and youth at becoming homeless. First of all in order to measure the type of move a scale from zero to three will be devised. Youth who report having a more negative experience with a move will answer closer to three and a youth who has a more positive experience will choose closer to zero. in all the scores of a youth will be added together depending on how many moves they have experienced. The higher the score the more at risk the youth is to becoming homeless. Each individual move can be examined to see what circumstances of moves creates a more negative experience for the youth.Also there is no data showing the relationship between distance that the youths family moves and the youths likelihood at becoming homeless. In order for this area to be researched a youth must be able to remember general addresses in order for the distanced moved to be measured. Multiple move distances can be added together in order to gain an insight on the total distance of moves the youth experiences. Also two concourses need to be surveyed including a control group compromising of housed youth, and a study group who are currently homeless. I hypothesize that the study group will have significantly higher distances moved when compared to the control group. Youth whose families move over longer distances may have to break off relationships they have made as they unload a new area with no bonds to rely on. The youth who is in a new area may make they feel isolated due to the unfamiliarity. On the other hand I hypothesize that youth who are housed will have a lower distance of family moves. Shorter family moves allows the youth to stay in contact with friends and teachers and they give them emotional support.Early experiences with kind services and Current Perception of Social ServicesThe early experiences that youth have with social services likely will have an pertain on the way they perceive and use social services. In ord er to gain an insight on the way a youth perceives social services a qualitative interview should be used in order to gather thoughts and emotions felt by the homeless youth. A study should consist of homeless youth and should take into account the early experiences that a youth has with social services. These early experiences could include removal of siblings by a childrens aid worker, returning the homeless youth home due to police picking them up, interactions with teachers, as well as interactions with councilors. The early experiences can then be compared to the youths current perception on social services. This research will provide social workers with an insight on the reasons why social services are not used to their latent so that they can employ practices that can accompany these homeless youths needs.Relationship StrengthStreet relationships are hard to measure due to their negative and positive attributes. In order to find the strengths and weaknesses in street relatio nships a survey can be implemented accessing each relationship a homeless youth may have with other homeless youth. The following questions can be asked to represent different aspects of a relationship and can be taxd to see whether street relationships are positive or negative. 0 will be looked at as negative and 5 will be looked at as positive. Overall these questions can determine the strengths and flaws of street relationshipsHow much comfort do you feel subtle that this person is there for youCould you rely on this person in an soupcon be drugs used when hanging around each otherAre crimes committed when hanging around each otherHas this person habituated advice that has allowed you to survive on the street?Has this person taken advantage of you(Selling drugs for them, or committed a crime for them)Discussion/ ConclusionEach individual homeless youth has a variety of factors that lead them to the streets and hinders their ability to leave. The preliminary literature done on homeless youth have done a good job finding the factors behind a youth becoming homeless but fail to go into detail on each individual factor. Using the scales developed above, further interviews can commit valuable information that can influence early intervention strategies.Also there is a sufficient amount of research done on the reasons why homeless youth avoid using social services. elflike research is done the early experiences with social services but it form important to research because it is unknown how these experiences have an effect of a homeless youths decision to use social services.There is also a large amount of literature showing that the type of relationship significantly affects whether or not a youth can escape homelessness. This survey can measure relationship strength and therefore evaluate whether or not that relationship is positive or negative.Finally prox research can use these developed measures and policy recommendations to further research in the field. It is important that youth are exposed to positive experiences with social services early, so social service workers should educate youth early on about their programs and services available. Overall this paper examines the details that have been overlooked by the previous literature.Shaw, mortality among street youth in the UKDavidson and mansion facing the challenge mental health and illness in Canadian youth 1996

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