Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Diabetes , hypoglycemia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Diabetes , hypoglycemia - Essay Example Sugar or glucose is then absorbed into the bloodstream to stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which controls the amount of sugar in the blood and transports the sugar from the blood to the cells (â€Å"Diabetes Mellitus,† 2003). Once inside the cells, the sugar or glucose is then converted into Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), or energy, which is then immediately utilised by the body, or stored for future use. Without insulin, blood sugar levels or blood glucose levels become extremely high due to the fact that it was not transported from the blood to the cells. Because of this, glucose begins to overflow into the urine since the kidney tubules cannot reabsorb it fast enough. Water is then flushed out of the system along with glucose, resulting to dehydration. (Marieb, 2004) Because insulin production is either inhibited or impaired, glucose stays in the blood, and thus cannot be converted into energy. Cells break down fats and protein instead of glucose to meet its energy requirements (Marieb, 2004). This can lead to a series of complications. Since fats are broken down for energy instead of glucose, ketones may form in the blood as it has become very acidic; hence, ketoacidosis may arise. Apart from this, since protein is also utilised as an energy source, the body’s defense mechanisms become weak, and there is loss of weight and muscle tone. The three cardinal signs of Diabetes Mellitus to be watched out for are the three polys. First is polyuria, which is excessive urination. This arises because, as mentioned above, the excessive amount of glucose is flushed out of the system, along with ketones. Second is polydipsia, which is extreme thirst due to dehydration from excessive water flushing, and last is polyphagia or excessive hunger resulting from the inability of the cells

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