Monday, April 1, 2019
The meaning and of managing change
The meaning and of managing falsifyThe word pitch itself tends to be in truth confusing and everybody fears and tends to refuse miscellany. If you train any employee to the highest degree channelise, he/she will have negative responses to substitute. in spite of macrocosm complex and confusing yet it is very important referable to the changing economic situations facing the initiation nowadays.However, the meaning of managing transport varies fit to plurality. For some state it maybe, a sore(a) way toward success for others it may be seen as a way to put its business onto impudently waves and so on. According to Michael Armstrong, trade circumspection is the edge of achieving the smooth instruction execution of commute by planning and introducing it systematically, taking into fib the likelihood of it be resisted.Success of implementing change depends largely on the way change it is managed. In this chapter, in that respect will be an overview on different perspectives, importance on change management, including various tools used by researchers to asses change management.2.2 CHANGE focal point2.2.1 Conceptual mattersA.P Sloan (1967) stated that The circumstances of an ever-changing market and an ever-changing harvest-feast atomic number 18 capable of breaking any business fundamental law if that scheme is unprep atomic number 18d for change. In other words, if an organization decides to change it fannynot just recover it should be managed primly.2.2.2 Typologies of changeThere tether types of changes namelyStrategic qualifyingStrategic change is defined as changes in the content of a firms strategy as defined by its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantages, and synergism (Hofer and Schendel, 1978). It is about changing the organisational vision, mission and objectives for a longer depot for its betterment.Operational ChangeOperational change consists of changes occurring in the organizations structures, new sy stems, procedures or technology, which will contribute towards a better human productivity or increase profitability. According to Gartner, operational change is primordial in the grooming of a high IT service quality.Transformational ChangeTransformational changes occur when there is a shift in the organizational culture resulting from a change in the organizational processes and strategies.2.2.3 Change ProcessIt is important for organization to understand the change process steps well and subsequently initialize those steps. According to Robert Bacal, it comprises three phases preparation stage, acceptance stage and commitment stage.Figure 2.0-The steps in the Change ProcessPreparation human bodyContact order The very first stage whereby, an several(prenominal) have direct contact with the contingency of change occurrence.Aw atomic number 18ness Stage The individual is aw ar that change is be considered.Acceptance PhaseUnderstanding Stage Occurs when the individual shows a original degree of understanding of the nature and intent of change.Positive Perception The individual starts developing a positive view about change.Commitment PhaseInstallation Stage The change is being apply and operational.Adoption Stage The individual has now adopted the change and it is being long conviction affluent to exhibit its positive result and impact.Institutionalization Change is fully embodied in the organization and has shown its worth, durability and continuity and is now considered as a routine operating procedures.Internalization Individuals have become committed to change as they themselves consider it as compatible with their running(a)(a) behaviours, goals and organizational systems.2.2.4 Change ModelsOver the past years there have various change models being used, some of the models are described beneath.Kurt Lewin (1951), The basic mechanisms for managing changeIn this model Lewin talk about three processes unfreezing, changing and refreezing. Unfreez ing implies changing the accredited attitudes and behaviours existing at the workplace. However, this process butt lead to resistance, so change agent should analyze the possible problems and resolve them. Besides, changing is a process of transition whereby, change starts to be operational. While refreezing occurs once change is implemented and is in need of stabilization. Nevertheless(prenominal) it is a time consuming process, as people will have to adapt to this new development. The process is shown on a lower floorFigure 2.2- Lewin Three-Stage Approach to ChangeThere is also a methodology proposed by Lewin for analyzing change, known as Field Force Analysis. This method analyzes the restraining or the brainish array which will have an take on the transition. The restraining force includes those who have a negative view on change. It assesses which one of the two forces has the balance of power. Subsequently, it allow practitioner to evolve necessary meausres to increase driving force and decrease restraining force. This foundation be illustrated diagrammaticallyFigure 2.3- descent http//www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_lewin_force_field_analysis.htmlRichard Beckhard (1969), change programmeBeckhard initiated the following processesThe organization should set out neediness goals and future organizational conditions after the change.Identify the current situation of the organization in relation with the goals.Identify the activities and commitment required during the transition to correspond future goals.Develop appropriate strategies and action to manage this transition, taking into account factors that might come upon this change.Beckhard alongside with David Gleicher developed a Change par which is shown belowFigure 2.3-Source http//www.greatleadershipbydan.com/2009/01/beckhards-change-equation.htmlAccording to them the above factors is necessary for any organizational change, which is applicable before and after the change.Keith Thurle y (1979) five f deficiencyes to managing changeAccording to Thurley, there are five come alonges to manage change which areDirectiveThis is through with(p) without any consultation and is imposed onto the people in times of unfavourable situation or when other methods have failed.BargainedHere change is being bargained whereby employer and employee discuss, negotiate, and compromise before implementing change. The views of the employees are being taken into consideration.Hearts and mindsThis onward motion force to change the current attitudes, values and beliefs of the workforce. Through this approach, management seeks commitment, and divided up vision from the workforce which does not mean participation.AnalyticalAnalytical approach demonstrates clear definition of problem by diagnosing and analyzing the situation. Afterwards, collect selective information to set objectives and design change process and finally evaluating the result. This theoretical approach is very difficult to do in practice.Action-basedIt starts with a broad root of the problem and it uses trial and error to get a better solution. It is less analytical and more involving.2.2.5 Resistance to Change community resist change because they fear of the unknown, and thus create negative feelings about change. People want stability and equilibrium in their lives as well as on the job(p) life and so resist changes.184.108.40.206 Joan Woodward (1968), reasons for resisting changeAccording to Joan Woodward (1968), resistance to change are due toFearing the unknownMany people are distrustful about change because it will disturb their method of work, or working conditions, thus they have a feeling of insecurity.Economic fearPeople may feel if changes occur they might lose their job.InconvenienceThey conceptualise changes will collect their life difficult.Symbolic fearChanges may affect some symbolic issues that people are attached to, like demote offices etc.Threat to interpersonal relationshipsThe y believe that changes may disrupt their working relationships.Menace to status and skillThey tend to associate change to a method of de-skilling or a reduction in the status take. competence fearsIf changes occur, they fear that they will not be able to adapt to new working demands and lack competencies.220.127.116.11 Overcoming resistance to changeResistance to change is a problematic situation which organization should overcome. Organization can use the cardinal Change Approaches (Kotter and Schlesinger) to deal with resistance to change, for exampleEducation and Communication whizz of the reason people resist change is because, there is a lack of sharing of information. So management must(prenominal)(prenominal), share and glide by information about the motives behind the change to its people.Participation and InvolvementWhen employees are involved and enter in the change, they are more enthusiasm about change and because do not resist change.Facilitation and SupportUpper manage ment must support and facilitate the transition they should help them to overcome their fears, through counseling, mentoring and so on.Negotiation and AgreementManagers may negotiate with group of employees which possess enough power to influence resistance to change. They may offer incentives or make agreement between them to combat resistance.Manipulation and Co-optionKotter and Schlensinger have proposed a method of manipulation and co-option when all other methods seem to be ineffective. This technique manipulates people who are resisting change. An example can be, giving a symbolic role in decision making to a leader. However, if they control out they are manipulated, they will drive resistance to change higher. expressed and Implicit CoercionThis is the last resort that managers used, that is forcing employees to accept change, this can be effected through fear, by threatening employees lost of job, no life story prospects and so on.2.2.6 Implementing ChangeNadler and Tushma n (1980) have developed some guidelines for effective slaying of changeMotivate people to accept and adapt to changes.Good management and control should be ensured during and after transition through communication and proper image of the future.Ensure that politics dynamics support changes rather than resist it. form stability of new structures and changes.In addition to these guidelines, changes will take place smoothly with the help of a change agent who can be internal or external.2.2.7 Organizational TransformationOrganizational mutation as per Cummins and Worley (2005) is A process of radically altering the organizations strategic direction, including fundamental changes in structures, processes and behaviours.John P Kotter ((The Heart of Change, 2002) introduced strategies for organizational conversion, which is summed up belowIncrease urgencyMake real and achievable objectives and drive motivation.Build the guiding teamBuild a team with salutary people possessing right ki nd attitudes, skills, commitment and so onGet the right visionMake the team build simple vision and strategy and focus on emotional and creative aspect for more clevernessCommunicateCommunicate to people and encourage them to participate.EmpowermentOrganization should endue its people, remove all obstacles, provide 360 degree feedback, support and recognize and retaliate them accordingly.Create short term winsCreate short achievable aims, which are easy to attain. Organizations should also finish existing aims before starting new ones.Never give upAlways encourage and motivate and run forecasted results.Stabilize changeOnce change is implemented should make it stick, by creating a culture of change in the organization.2.2.8 Role of HR in managing changeAccording to Ulrich (1997) the key role of HR practitioners during change, is to act as a change agent and thus provide for organizational transformation and cultural change.18.104.22.168 HR practitioners as change agentsThere are four dimensions according to Caldwell (2001) that classify HR change agentTransformational ChangeThese are changes having a great impact on HR policies and practices of a business. additive ChangeIt is gradual modification of HR policies and practices that have little effect on its activities.HR VisionSet of values and beliefs relating to HR functions which are a strategic business partner.HR ExpertiseHR professionals can use their expertise and knowhow to contribute for business success.22.214.171.124 HR contribution in change managementUlrich (1998) says that HR practitioners are not fully easygoing or compatible in the role of change agent. Therefore their occupation is not to perform change but is to ensure that change is implemented. Their contributions are mostly about implementing structures, systems etc that support change. So they will have to motivate, communicate and involve people in change management. HR specialist must also provide proper training and development programmes so t hat employees can upgrade their skills, behaviours to adapt to change.2.3 ConclusionChanges always happen, so to remain up to date organization should invest in change management. Upper level management should feel the need for change and communicate to its people. Additionally, management should never be demotivated even if there is resistant, they should be perseverant and continue to encourage people to accept change. You should be the change that you want to see in the world Mahatma Gandhi. Information from this literature was used to develop the research methodology in Chapter 4.