Saturday, December 15, 2018
'Indian & European Relations in the 1600s Essay\r'
'Spain in conglutination the produces\r\n1560s: Spanish sire up search for Indian gold. Focus on def block offing their empire from side of meat (who were pl undering measure ships and Caribbean ports) and cut Protestants (who began to solidifyingtle in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land). Spanish establish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) to protect r reveale of the treasure fleet. They likewise shambles French Protestants. Raids by homegrown Americans wipe out military outposts and religious missions. 1573: The Comprehensive Order for smart Discoveries says that missionaries, not conquistadors, have to pacify the land. Franciscan friars set up missions in Nuevo MÃÂ©xico ( raw(a) Mexico) and attack Native Americans. Native Americans do pressure labor. 1680: PopÃÂ© leads revolt, kills cd Spaniards and forces remaining 1500 to flee to El Paso, and destroys Spanish missions (Pueblo gross out of 1680). Spaniards return, Native Americans make a d eal that lets them shape their own religion and end forced labor, merely they have to help the Spaniards. Outcome: Spanish bust to convert Native Americans, Santa Fe left vulnerable. In Florida, raids by English leave St. Augustine vulnerable.\r\nFrench in North America\r\n1608: First permanent settlement, Quebec, is founded\r\n1662: poof Louis XIV turns bran-new-sprung(prenominal) France into a royal colony, tries to beguile people to move there. Cannot get enough people. overbold France becomes an argona for trading furs. Rise of the Iroquois: French introduce diseases that kill umpteen Indians. Indians get guns from fur trade, which leads to war. The flipper Iroquois Nations come out on top, have match of the fur trade in Quebec (with the French) and New capital of The Netherlands (with the Dutch). French Jesuits try to win Indian converts. They do not exploit the Indians, and they come to understand their culture. They snuff it win converts by adapting Christianity to the needs of the Indians. Outcome: disdain efforts of the Jesuits, French fur trade contracts devastation finished disease and loss of Indian culture. Iroquois warriors kill many, though they too are harmed: French burned their villages and killed many warriors in 1666 and again in 1690.\r\nDutch in North America\r\nDutch set up a fur-trading post (Fort orangeness) along the Hudson River. West India go with has monopoly on the fur. after, Dutch founded New Amsterdam and make it the capital of New Netherland. Colony didnÃ¢â¬â¢t boom out: miniscule population made it vulnerable. Fort Orange succeeds as a public securityful and successful fur-trading post. Dutch near New Amsterdam are much aggressive towards Indians. 1640: war. After the war, West India Company ignores New Netherland, focuses on slave trade. 1664: Dutch f both under control of the English under the Duke of York 1673: Dutch aggress momentarily recaptures the colony\r\nEdmund Andros takes control, in reta liation imposes English law and demands allegiance. Outcome: Dutch, who had once been dominant, are straightaway a subject people.\r\nChapter 6: Making struggle and Republican Governments (1776-1789)\r\n contentists demand that colonists join Loyalist or Patriot side Ã¢â¬ cannot stay neutral. Patriots have payoff to get stayers b/c they control topical anaesthetic establishments. Patriots make regular regular the States, and Patriots encouraged people to support the army by taking a more lively percentage in govt. Character of politics changes when vulgar people exert influence: democratic army launches age of republican revolution.\r\nAmericans forced to retreat, Britain pushed sanction Americans into PA. When wintertime comes, Britain halts their campaign and Patriots catch them off guard, winning small victories.\r\nArmies and Strategies\r\nHowe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to destroy Americans, just wants them to forgo and compromise. Howe cannot win decisive victory, Wash ington avoids defeat. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s handicaps: Fights only defensively, has unfit recruits, Radical Whig Patriots believe army is threat to liberty.\r\nAmerican Victory at spotted bonytongue\r\nBritainÃ¢â¬â¢s goal: isolate New England\r\nNorthÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial hugger-muggerary GermainÃ¢â¬â¢s image: attack capital of New York from 3 sides. Burgoyne, St. Leger, and Howe go away attack. HoweÃ¢â¬â¢s different plan: attack Philadelphia (home of Continental Congress), end rebellion w/ single victory. Howe uses his plan speechlessly. Continental Congress flees to PAÃ¢â¬â¢s interior. HoweÃ¢â¬â¢s slow attack directly leads to defeat of BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s army. BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions: runs, then stalls. Americans led by General render slows BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s army stuck in Saratoga, NY. crush back while trying to raid VT. Has army w/drawn to help Howe. Meanwhile, GatesÃ¢â¬â¢ forces grow. October 1777: Burgoyne forced to surrender. Turni ng point of the war.\r\nSocial and Financial Perils\r\nBritish maritime blockade causes disruption in New England fishing industry, and British occupation causes mitigate in domestic trade and manufacturing. People move out, decrease in population. Chesapeake colonies: blockade cuts tobacco exports. Short append of goods = army starts getting supplies from the people. Women and House obtain Production\r\nWomen:\r\n1 Increase output of homespuns\r\n2 Participate in farmwork\r\nDespite this, goods remain scarce and p strains rise. soil of war also created deprivation, displacement, and death. War divides communities b/c of PatriotsÃ¢â¬â¢ violence.\r\nFinancial Crisis\r\n raise govts are weak, donÃ¢â¬â¢t create new taxes. Creation of fiat money, Continental Congress and coloniesÃ¢â¬â¢ economies crumble.\r\nvale Forge\r\nStarvation and sickness for Americans during the winter in Valley Forge, further Baron von Steuben raises morale. Continental army becomes tougher and bette r disciplined.\r\nThe Path to Victory, 1778-1783\r\n1778: Continental Congress assort w/ France. Alliance gives Continental Congress money, supplies, and subsequent troops. Also confronts Britain w/ international war that challenges subordination of Atlantic.\r\nThe French Alliance\r\nAlliance starts w/ secret loan to colonies to avenge FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of Canada to Britain. Later turns into a formal alliance.\r\nNegotiating the Treaty\r\nAmerican diplomats vouch treaty specifies that French support cannot end until the unite States is independent. Alliance revives colonies and Continental Congress.\r\nThe British Response\r\nWar is becoming unpopular in Britain. round British support Americans and campaign for domestic reforms. George III ab initio committed to crushing rebellion, but after British defeat at Saratoga changes his mind. Tries to prevent American and French alliance (Parliament repeals Tea Act, Prohibitory acts, and renounces serious to tax colonies).\r\nW ar in the South\r\nFrench and Spanish (who joined the war against Britain in 1779) agendas cause British to shift focus of the war to the South.\r\nBritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Southern Strategy\r\nBritish plan:\r\n1 Focus on winning tobacco and rice colonies (VA, Carolinas, GA) then rely on local Loyalists to hold them 2 Exploit racial divisions between slaves and Patriot owners Ã¢â¬ get slaves to flee At first, British are winning. But tide turns. Dutch join fight against British. France dispatches troops to America\r\nPartisan Warfare in the Carolinas\r\nGeneral Green fights in Carolinas. Fighting goes back and forth. Britain is weakened by this war of attrition, and British make up ones mind to give up Carolinas to Greene and focus on VA instead.\r\nbenedick Arnold and Conflicting Loyalties\r\nBenedict Arnold switched from American side to British side. Fights for George III in VA.\r\nBritain Defeated\r\nWashington and the French fleet surround Cornwallis and his troops on land. Cornwalli s is outnumbered, cannot skirt by sea. October 1781: Cornwallis surrenders in Yorktown\r\nThe Patriot returns\r\nWhy the Americans won the war:\r\n1 Some British mistakes\r\n2 Widespread Patriots in America\r\n3 Many Americans support war by means of taxes and joining the militia\r\n4 Patriots led by experienced politicians\r\n5 George Washington\r\nAmericans refuse to support British army, refuse to accept occupation by Loyalist forces, and endure the inflation caused by the war.\r\ndiplomatical Triumph\r\nPeace talks begin in 1782, but French and Spanish stall b/c they still hope for major naval victory or territorial conquest. Ignoring Treaty of Alliance, Americans call attention a separate peace w/ the British. family 1783: Treaty of Paris. Great Britain recognizes independence of the colonies.\r\nBritain gets:\r\n1 Canada 2 Rights for merchants to pursue legal claims for prewar debts 3 Americans will encourage put up legislatures to return confiscated property to Loyalist s and mete out them citizenship America gets:\r\n1 Great Lakes and land easterly of the Mississippi River\r\n2 Fishing rights\r\n3 independence of navigation on the Mississippi\r\n4 British cannot seize property like slaves\r\n1783: Treaty of Versailles Ã¢â¬ Britain makes peace w/ France and Spain\r\nChapter 10: Creating Republican Institutions, 1776 Ã¢â¬ 1787\r\nThe State typographys: How often Democracy?\r\nMany states had written state constitutions when the Continental Congress urged them to in 1776.\r\nThe Rise of Popular Politics, 1820-1829\r\n working out of the franchise = most democratic symbol of the democratic change. Gives ordinary men more power than anyplace else in the world.\r\nThe Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties\r\nAmerican Revolution weakened the deferential society, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t inflict it. Wealthy notables still dominated the political system at first. 1810: Struggle to expand suffrage began. State legislatures grant broader voting rights to diffuse criticism and deter migration to the west. The new voters refused to support politicians that flaunted their high social status. elected politics is misdirect.\r\nMartin Van Buren:\r\n1 Created political machine, the Albany Regency. 2 Patronage: gives brass jobs to party members in return for their loyalty. (Spoils system) 3 Insists on party discipline, requires elected officials to follow dictates of the party caucus.\r\nThe Election of 1824\r\nFive candidates, all Republicans, campaigned for presidency. Jackson received most popular votes, but Adams won because Clay made a Ã¢â¬Å"corrupt bargainÃ¢â¬Â with Adams, where Clay would vote Adams into presidency if he would become secretary of state.\r\nPresidency of John Quincy Adams: the last notable president\r\nSupports American agreement ( custodial tariffs, national bank, subsidized internal improvements) Resistance to the American System: southerners oppose protective tariffs because they raised the price of manufactures, and smallholders feared strong banks that could force them into bankruptcy. Politicians oppose American System on constitutional grounds (for example, saying that the national political relationÃ¢â¬â¢s income couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fund state improvement projects because those projects were the responsibility of the states). Southerners were also angry about the responsibility of 1828, which raised duties on raw materials and textiles. Southerners also loathe AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢s pro-Indian policy.\r\nJacksonian Impact\r\n1 spread out potential authority of President by identifying it with the go of the people. 2 Upheld national authority by weighed down use of military force, laying foundation for capital of NebraskaÃ¢â¬â¢s later defense of the Union. 3 stimulate Jeffersonian tradition of limited central government by undermining American System of national banking, protective tariffs, and internal improvements. 4 Undermined constitutional jurisprudence of marshal l by appointing Taney as MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s successor. Taney partially reversed nationalist and property-rights decisions of Marshall. Example: In the solecism Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Taney says that a take up doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily bestow a monopoly, and a legislature could charter competition (in this case, a competing dyad co.) to help the public.\r\nThis decision directly challenges what Marshall verbalize in the Dartmouth College v. Woodward case, where Marshall stresses the binding nature of a contract by saying that a state cannot invalidate a contract. Other cases that place limits on MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s nationalistic interpretations by enhancing role of state governments: Mayor of New York v. Miln (1837): New York state can use Ã¢â¬Å"police powerÃ¢â¬Â to claver health of immigrants. Briscoe v. Bank of Kentucky (1837): When it issues currency, a bank have by the Kentucky doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t violate the provision of the Constitution that pro hibits states from issuing Ã¢â¬Å"bills of credit.Ã¢â¬Â As a result of the Taney speak toÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions, the role of state governments in work was greatly enhanced. 5 States write new constitutions that course democracy, many of which introduce classical liberalism (laissez-faire). Laissez-faire says the government role in the economy should be limited.\r\n'